GEOG 1400 Chapter Notes - Chapter Lakes : Limnology, Periglaciation, Permafrost

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29 Jul 2016
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Jan. 1st, 2015
AP GEOG 1400 – BOOK NOTES (Jan. 5)
Lakes – (pgs. 441- 444)
Lakes
- A body of fresh or salt water of varying size that is completely surrounded by land.
- Canada has approx.. 60% of the world’s lakes.
Limnology –
- Study of lakes, lake sediments, and ecosystems.
Types of Lakes
- Can be formed by many natural causes.
oTectonic Rifting
oVolcanic Activity
oMeteoric Impact
oMigration and Abandonment of old channel sections by meandering streams.
oGlacial Erosion
Fjords are formed where flooded glacial troughs have been uplifted (or sea level
dropped) and have been cut off from the sea.
Proglacial lakes are formed at the margins of glaciers or at the dges of former ice
sheets.
- Lakes are also formed in low-lying areas of periglacial areas over permafrost, and occur in ice
sheets and glaciers.
- Underground lakes occur in caves in karst areas.
- Aeolic lakes form in depressions caused by deflation of sand in arid environments.
- There are also many artificial lakes (reservoirs) created by damns to provide water for domestic,
recreational, industrial, and agricultural uses, irrigation, and the generation of electricity, and to
control stream discharge (flood and erosion prevention).
- Endorheic lakes have no apparent outflows and lose water through evaporation. (Common in arid
areas, and many are saline or alkaline.
- Hypersaline are bodies of water like the Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake, etc. and have salinities far in
excess of sea water.
- Lakes that totally evaporate leaving a salt or alkaline pan or playas.
Classification of Lakes by Nutrient Content
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