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Jan 9 - Hart Massey and Mistahimusqua .pdf

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HIST 2500
William Wicken

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January 9: Hart Massey and Mistahimusqua Readings: Bumsted, pp. 210-54, including embedded texts on Red River Letter (pp. 213-14), Ambroise Lepine (p. 216), Canada First (p. 217), Letter of 4 December 1869 (pp. 219-20), Confederation Complete (pp. 220-1), Alexander Mackenzie (p. 226), Sir John A Macdonald (p. 227), Poundmaker (p. 242), All that I Used to Live on Has Gone” (p. 244), The Battle of Batoche (pp. 246-7), Historic Sites (p. 252). - new union consisted of ontario, quebec, nova scotia and new brunswick - john a macdonald government was aware a lot of british territory on the continent had been excluded - new government was old canadian coalition with few maritime faces - started building the intercolonial railway along the eastern coast of new brunswich - hudson bay company would sell Rupert's land and the northwest territory to the new nation - provincial identities grew alternative to the national identity envisioned - adding new territory - dec 1867 passage of resolutions calling for transcontinental expansion - road built from fort garry to lake of the woods - proposed road and water system linking red ricer with canada - nobody paid attention to metis who constituted bulk of local population of settlement - british government received territory from hudson bay company (canadians put 300,000 pounds and agreed to substantial land grants for the company) and transferred it intact to canada - canada intended to treat the new territory as a colony - some of the road builders bought land cheaply from the aboriginal peoples - metis perceived canadians as a threat to their way of life - a red river letter - oct 1869 - people of red river don't want canadian governor - representatives loyal to subject of england, behold to huron bay company for protection under the government of that company - red river ppl had supported husdon bay company, established in engalnd - snow and dennis have disregarded law of nations in coming to carry out public work in the name of alien authority without paying attention to authority today existing int he country - metis dont agree with right - want to be respected like other englishmen - will fight for their rights - october 1869 metis leader louis riel - his father protest against hudson bay company won rights to trade furs freely - spoke out against surveyors metis didnt want governors to come - large band of metis took possession of upper fort garry (hudson bay company central headquarters) - people of red river wanted to be allowed to negotiate their own entry into confederation on basis of rights already agreed to by residents - louis riel got forces of 40 representatives equally divided in language and debated and approved another lists of rights - appointed three delegates to go to ottawa to negotiate with macdonald government - thomas scott murder lead to red river uprising - metis obtained manitoba act of 1870 - remainder of north west became territory of canada - one of its principal tasks was to extinguish aboriginal title through negotiations of treaties with indigenous people - may 187- “peaceful” expedition to red river - scott execution provided the canadian government with excuse to deny riel and his lieutenants an official amnesty for all acts committed during uprising - louis riel went into long term exile instead of becoming premier of province he created - postage stamp province called Manitoba was taken out, reminder of territory transferred to canada by hudson bay company, north west territories, was initially administered under original legislation pass by Canadian parliament in 1869 to deal with west - governemnt and natural resources under strict control of canada - 1872 territories given appointed council of 11 members - ambroise lepine - born in st boniface, educated - married cecile marion in 1859 manitoba - farmed and buffalo hunt - important figure in uprising against canadian annexation of red river - didnt want mcdougal to cross line and cause canadian control over territory - associated with louis riel - commander of metis - named adjutant general to provisional government, given responsibility for administration of justice - chief of police in the settlement led metis forces out of upper fort garry to confront men from portage la prairie returning form military gathering at kildonan - 1871 raise a metis militia force against fenian invasion - paid by canadian government to leave manitoba with riel - sent to jail - canada first - george taylor dension 3, william alexander fosters, robert grant haliburton, charles mai and henry j morgan founded canadas first - agreed on evil of provincialism and need to inoculate new national spirit - agreed on necessity of securing for new dominion the vast territory west of ontario - superiority of white anglo saxon protestants - looked down on aboriginals - saw french as great bar to profess and to extension of anglo saxon domination across continent - public sentiment to execute thomas scott by provisional govenrment of red river - endorses resistance of usurpation of power by murderer riel - suppress uprising - gross injustice to negotiate with emissaries of a government who had robbed, imprisions and murdered loyal canadians - B.C asked to join union - resolve colonies financial difficulties - union with canada was debated by british columbia legislative council in march 1870 - red river settlement to montreal - debate between delegates - french didnt wish to impose their provisional government on any or all of english - wanted to serve country men for free (reil) - government wasn't religious - all armed men there - b.c. couldn't influence shape of confederation - b.C could have a responsible government and debt would be wiped - there would be subsidies and grants and could have rail link with canada - jul 20 1871 b.c joined - confederation encouraged the development of a new land policy for the province - confederation complete - b.c joins making it transoncintentally complete - divorce from parent empire - nationlike - p.e.i acceptance was anticlimactic - nfl didnt want to join - catholics opposed the union - the development of national policies - confederation was encouraging foreign investment - cananda was able to important large amounts of capital to create its infastrucuter - british made clear they were willing to surrender canadian interests in fisheries to settle outstanding anglo american differences - two major banks as dominion notes act of 1870 and bank act of 1871 - new federal system of justice - national penitentiary system 1868 - north west mounted police 1873 - more capital invested in railway expansion - railway as prime target of foreign investors - macdonald had corrupt dealings - nov 1783 liberal government replaces with alexander mackenzie - wanted to build line with public funds - encouraged private interest to hook up with american western lines - trans began running form minnesota to winnipeg in 1878 - alexander macknenzie - born in scottland 1822 - grew up speaking english and gaelic - had small education but mainly self taught - came to adulthood in financial depression and political discontent - 1842 immigrated to canada - 1847 became building contractor and supporter of clear grit movement - george brown became mentor - supported confederation by opposed great coalition - led the reform party to parliament after confederation - contributed to a new nation - became federal leader of liberal opposition in parliament of may 1873 and became prime minster when macdonald resigned on nov 5 - canadian nation would be governed by alternative visions and different national policies - his government granted amnesty to the red river rebels and provisional pardon to louis riel - created supreme court of cananda and built more than 2500 miles of train railway track - supported free trade and greater national power within british empire - national policy - mackenzie government largely responsible for initial funding of western railway construction - gave railway companies large land grants along with right of way - pioneers could receive free land grants in return for developing the land - most early settlers bought land from railways or hudson bay company - nation could be governed without serious upheaval by another political party with different policies - john A then returned to power - introduced the house of commons as a resolution . - sir john a macdonald on the national policy - vote for the needs you want because once a policy is instilled it cant be reversed - we produce a lot we can send surplus around - macdonald swayed all the people on some peoples ideas of economic self interest that would help a nation - responsibility for immigration policy had been divided between dominion and provinces by british north america act - wanted federal supremacy over immigration policy to make rapid settlement of the west - which immigrants as acceptable - no criminals or vicious classes - dominion advertised in europe for new settlers - block settlements of russian mennnonites in 1872 - 1879 chinese immigrants, half working on the railway - john a wanted to replace chinese labour with white labour - the quest for regional and national identity - BNA act had no gurantees that political unification would create a nation - major questions if canada was indissoluble new creation or product of a compact among the provinces that they could modify or even leave - arch critic of confederation, christopher dunkin - ontario initially spearheaded the provincial rights interpretation of the new union - wanted each provincial government to be independent of others in its management of its own affairs - many liberals in most provinces who opposed confederation had embraced provincial rights - provincial rights often seemed interchangeable with ottawa bashing for local political advantage lacking in any other principle than the desire to pressure ottawa into concessions - political rights involved on one level a political constitutional struggle over revenue and power - they were a reflection of the continued identification of the people of canada with their province of residence as much as, if note more than, their nation - educational structure encouraged this identification - education passed from private to public financial support as schooling became universal - education left in hands of provincial government - canada first was a secret society - painters took lead in organizing national groups to maintain professional standards and publicize canadian achievement - the ontario society of artists 1872 - royal society of canada 1882 to promote research and learning in the arts and sciences - bond of union between scattered workers now widely separated in different parts of the dominion - other identities - most canadains had firm allegiance to their ethnic origins - french canadian expanded and acadians developed - state didnt provide benefits with sick, loss jobs, retired, died - political allegiance to the state was not as important as loyalty to the caring institutions for family, ethic, religion etc - churches and religion most important - mid victorian period big for roman catholicisim - church as leading voice of french canadas national aspirations and the assumption of local leadershipp by the cure - bishop ignace bourget an active defender of both the papcy and the position of the church in canada - introduced roman liturgy and fervently opposed principles of european revolutions - leading opponent of liberal tinkling in the province - english speaking catholicism had succeeded by 1840 in separating itself from francophone control - contemporaries often overlooked the importance of anglophone catholicism in the 19th century - only in canada west/ontario were protestants such a clear numerical ascendency and position of power and the regional culture assumed obvious protestant dimensions - ontario culture especially as it expanded westward onto the parries began to be confused with canadain culture in some circles - 1840 protestanism everywhere in BNA had largely cut itself free from its foreign origins in either great britian or US - protestanism emerged as a distinct and all embracing culture, was the construction of a broad alliance among the major denominations: Anglican, presbyterian and methodist - victorian protestan culture in ontario emphasized the relationship between social stability and protestant morality - firm belief in god and his millennium formed the basis for the latter - churches, esp protestant ones, were key to growth of vast networks of clubs, societies and charities - women generally used their own money to support their religious organizations which kept separate accounts and offered many women their first opportunity at independent administration - most of its members came from middle class and much of its literature was directed at demonstrating that poverty and family problems among the lower orders could be reduced by cutting off the availability of alcohol to the male breadwinner - orange order - by 1880 many canadians belonged to one or more of these societies - membership offered a means of social introduction into a new community, provided status and entertainment to members and increasingly supplied assurance of assistance in times of economic or emotional crisis - cultural life - the creation of the nation did not directly affect all aspects of cultural life - by 1880s most canadian cities could look forward to is it by professional performers which raised the standard of presentation and provided models worth of emulation - the arrival of professionals and the raising of standards could be damaging in to local amateurs who had previously dominated the theatrical scene and occasionally even produced homegrown plays and musicals - by the time of confederation, larger cities were producing substantial numbers of musical societies - caliza lavallee made o canada - most music making occurred in the home with people gathering around the piano to sing hymns and popular songs of the day - mid victorian period in canada saw a continued development of organized sports and games - usually imported - lacrosse was aboriginal - lacrosse flourished between 1868-1885 and achieved a spectator sport until it was overtaken by baseball and hockey - showshoeing popular in 1860s and aboriginal development - the develo
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