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Canada (162,366)
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HIST 2500 (33)

Jan 16 - Alexander and Ethel Martin .pdf

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HIST 2500
William Wicken

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January 16: Alexander and Ethel Martin Readings: Bumsted, pp. 256- 81 including embedded texts on Child Labour in Victorian Canada (p. 276), Hebert Brown Ames on Poverty in Montreal (p. 280). - years after confederation, canada became one of the richest nations in the world in terms of gnp and - per capita income - canada was top 10 of the world in industrial development country possessed rich agricultural and natural resources—success bc exploitation of advantages by a - burgeoning industrial sector - canada was rich, powerful, highly industrialized and progressive, even if still part of the british empire - vibrant labour movement as a result of both its geographical position and its colonial situation, canada before 1914 was able to enjoy relative isolation from the turmoil of international politics — concentrating on its own domestic - development patronage system reward the members of the chadian professional and business elites who ran the - two parties (liberal and conservatives) system diminished ideological and regional differences, offering french canadians their own - opportunities for advancement patronage thus encourage a stable party system in which matters of principle were less important than - the division of spoils of victory provinces insited that they, not the federal government, should control development within their - boundaries until sir john a macdonald died, conservatives had successfully appealed to quebec with a judicious - combination of local political patronage and national political policies - 1896 wilfred laurier became national chief - he had put together a coalition of provincial liberal parties by softening the potential issues of division laurier saw national unity and national harmony as identical and not surprisingly viewed bicultural state - as essential - conservatives of robert borden replace lauriers liberals in 1911 borden set out his halifax platform in 1907 calling or civil service reform, public ownership of telephones - and telegraphs, a reformed senate, and a free mail delivery in rural areas - canadian banking was highly centralized - 1913 montreal headquatered bakes held half of the assets of all canadian banks - quebec contained considerably fewer branch banks per capita than the rest of the nation - charted banks began growing - transportation continued to be an essential ingredient of development - railways were both a means of development and a field of investment - substantial railway construction involved significant public subsidies, in the form of land grants william mackenzie and donald mann constructed a second transcontinental line, the Canadian northern - railway, which passed considerably to the north of cpm - all canadians relied on the railway - passenger travel was swift and relatively inexpensive - energy was another essential - water power - waterfalls to be harnessed and crated through damns - hydroelectric power generation through quebec the process of exploiting electricity, both for light and for power was one of the rest unsung - technological developments - industry could use water power as an alternative to fossil fuel - cheap and productive - development of marquis wheat - between 1880-1930 nearly 4.5 million immigrants arrived in canada through europe and US - 1901-1911 Canadian population grew by 43 % - many new comers settled on farms, 70% joined the labour voce in industry and transportation canadians were generally more willing to accept immigrants from the brisith isles than from any other - place banardo and child labour and sending children over to canada for wages as charity, giving them better lives - emphasis on agricultural settlement and concerns about the assimilabilty of non-british immigrants, they needed willing workers - railroads liked bulagraians, poles and italians because by working hard and living simply they were peculiarly suited for the work - more than half of the workers were sojourners, who intended to use the savings from their earnings to return to their homelands, but a substantial minority would remain in canada permanently - financial centralization and growing industrial capacity, particularly the shift from the processing of primary goods into the secondary manufacturing of finished goods were major economic - developments in canada - they had to mobilize investment and exploit resources and recruit a labour force larger urban centres like montreal and toronto expanded constantly while smaller communities fell steadily - canadian economic growth 1885 was influx of foreign investment - canada used most of its imported capital to finance large development projects, such as railways and hydroelectric generation - canadas import of capital come from indirect portfolio investment (great britian) and direct investment (us) - portfolio investments represents money borrowed against securities, in this period mainly bonds - governemnt and railways did most of canals borrowing in briitan - the americans invested directly in canada to gain access to canadian raw materials and the candian market - they also invested in canadian manufacturing to gain maximum access to the canadian market - american investors took more chances and canadians played it safe - ontario deliberately encouraged americans to invest in the processing of raw materials by allowing them virtually free access to the prosiness natural resources - ontario became the centre of the candian iron and steel industry - coal replaced charcoal as heat - maritime failure - maritime entrepreneurs seemed to lack the financial sources to withstand the ups and downs of the economic cycles - 1911 montreal controlled much of the regions industrial enterprise - toronto moved in on the regions wholesale and retail marketing sector - many of the late 19th century labour organizations in canada were foreign imports, chiefly form US - if canadian labour got much of its structure from americans, it drew much of its practical experience from great britian - most labour conflict revolved around right to organize and recognition of unions - formed violence strikes - natural resources were good to export - resources not only earned money abroad they encouraged manufacturing at home - wheat economy expanded - the opening of the CPR was critical for the production of western wheat - farmers believed that homestead land was less likely to acquire rail transportation that was land owned by the railway itself - farming cost 300-1000 - most brought money from sale of land back east - western farmer was a market farmer - animals did most ploughing and cultivation - 1890 open and aggressive canadian immigration policy, by federal and provincial governments, brought new settlers to the parries - the first settlers from ukraine to canada had come in early 1890s joining mennonites and hungarians - ukraines would probably have preferred to go to the united states, but they fced increasing immigration restriction and often hostile reception from americans who no longer had unsettled agricultural land to distribute to newcomers - many of the immigrants came to canada because of a secret agreement between the canadian government and the north atlantic trading company, which direct ed immigrants to canada in return for under the table payments on a per capita basis - steamship and railway companies were probably more successful recruiters of immigration outside the british isles than was the canadian government - emphasized need for capital to establish a farm, the adoption of canadian styles of dress and the acquisition of free land - canadian government made a real effort after 1896 to recruit american farmer of european origins for what would become known as the last best west - dry land bc they were the best and could do dry farming - thousands of american farmers settled the dry belt in the years between 1906-1914 - wheat economy 1901-11 contributed to over 20% of the growth in per capita income in canada - water remained a major potential problem in much of the west - 1890 nova scotia was leading mining province in canada, chiefly because of its rich coal resources - new development of technologies to extract ore - increasinly availability of rawly transportation to remote areas - international market created a new demand for metals that canada had in abidanc
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