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Jan 23- Hilda Blake and Tom Longboat .pdf

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York University
HIST 2500
William Wicken

January 23: Hilda Blake and Tom Longboat Readings: Bumsted, pp. 281-303 including embedded texts, Nellie Letitia McClung (p. 292), On Imperialism and Nationalism (pp. 294-5), The Americanization of Canada (pp. 296-7), Clara Brett Martin (p. 298). - enormous expansion of framing in the prairie west, concentrating singlemindely on grain cultivation - major shift towards specialized farming - central canada—-farmers moved into specialized high quality consumer production becoming increasingly dependent on off farm processing, cheese, butter and meat - ontario had 1200 cheese factories capturing over half of the british market - the aristocrats of farming were the dairy farmers and fruit farmers - urban migration vs farmers and farm women moving into the traditional resource industries of the nation - males went to sea to fish or into woods to cut timber - females worked seasonally in factories, processing farm products or fish - isolation existed as did educational limits - postal service provided contact with wider world - book clubs at churches - newspapers delivered a couple days late with international coverage - the school and the church were two local institutions that served other functions besides providing formal education and worship services - school districts were usually the only sign of public organization in vast regions of rural canada that were otherwise politically unorganized - rural candians took their religion seriously - the demands of the farm were much lighter in winter - both sexed canadians of al ages routinely spent social evenings signing hymns and other songs and played charades - the underside of life on the family farm was the exploitation and abuse of those who would not in the end inherit a substantial share in the property - the system was particularly hard on women, who usually did not share in the ownership of the farm and who seldom received remuneration for their labour - womens responsibilities included not only the kitchen garden and small livestock but care of the family itself - man owned the land and usually made the decisions, including when to uproot and resettle often against the wishes of their wives - for large numbers of canadians of this era, growing up meant leaving the farm - scientists saw agriculture as a crucial step in the ladder of progress - the government displaced aboriginals by treaties then removed them to reserves and encouraged them to farm - native canadians needed a good deal of help to shift from a nomadic hunting/gathering existence to a settled agricultural one and they did not consistently receive assistance - the fight for the conservation of canadian wildlife involved the establishment of game reserves and legislation to curb indiscriminate hunting - back to nature movement —summer cottage - many refugees from the farm resolved their ambivalence through the summer cottage or summer travel, often into the wilderness - alongside the canadian cities came the growth of summer cottages and resort hotels located at lakeside or seaside and frequently directly served by rail - weekend train service poured middle class canadians by the thousands into laurentains of quebec, muskoka, algonquin park, etc - BC and Alberta reached by rail and railways built expensive sumptuous hotels to accommodate sojourners from the city - the waterways of ontario and quebec grew crowded with weekend canoeists enjoying a brief respite from the pressures of the city - britian and US as dominant sources of art - creation of canadian social novel - best selling books about values of rural and small town canada at the end of the 19th century - sara jeannette duncan - duncan was perhaps the first canadian writer to recognize the literary potential of small town canada - debate between those who sought to keep canada within the british empire and those who wanted it to assume full sovereignty - race question and reform question - the future of french canada within an evolving anglo american nation - imperialism, anglo french antagonisms, and reform - imperial development - great britian began to shed its little england free trade sentiments - substanial windfall profits came from exploiting the economies of asia, latin america and africa - many anglophone canadians began openly adverting canals active participation in the new british empire - nellie letitia mcclung - born in ontario 1873-1951 - moved family to manitoba in 1880 - she taught in normal school in winnipeg and rural manitoba - 1896 married robert wesley mcclung, druggist - entered short story competition in 1902 and encouraged to be American publisher - moved with husband and 4 kids to winnipeg in 1911 and organized political equality league in 1912 - 1914 organized mock parliament for women - manitoba first province grant women right to vote - supporter of war effort and red cross - 1921 elected to alberta legislature - moved to victoria in 1933 and became cvc governor, delegate of league of nations and advocate of divorce reform - supported great war - autobiographies were best - imperalist bc not a colonial - geography of NA worked against canadian nationalism - fear of canadas absorption into US led many canadians to oppose a new reciprocity agreement with US in 1911 - on imperalism and nationalism - 7 million in canada have less voice, in law and in fact, in the ruling of the empire than one sweeper in liverpool - they have votes on administration of empire but we don't - those in britian are of a sovereign community and the rest are a subjected colony - must go along with whatever treaties they choose to accept - womens suffrage movement - leaders of reform movement were of middle and progressional classes who shared assumptions of the age and regeneration and social purity - women wanted inculcating middle class virtues or with helping the poor - french candian women were significantly under represented in most national reform movements bc of political isolation of quebec and ideology of traditional society limited the place of women in the province - the suffrage movement did emphasize the gender question - addressed women political powerlessness by attempting to win for them the right to vote - urban movement by well educated women - didn't see rural issues or support farm women - the americanization of canada - more than 1/5 born canadians settled in US - in all 2,480,613 persons in US, atleast half Canadian blood - massachustts most and then rhode island - WCTU wanted prohibition (preventing crime, abuse of women and children, political corruption and general immorality) - little catholic or urban working class support - single minded arguments - the growth of city missions and church settlement houses led to the establishment of the social services council of canada in 1912 - doctors were active in promoting a public health system and in recommending ways of improving public health care - medical professions public health recommendations were compulsory medical inspection of school children - schools and members of teaching profession were also in the front lines of humanitarian reform - educators pushed not only for improved schooling but for the schools to assume much of the burden of - social services for the young by acting in loco parentis for the children of slum and ghetto dwellers at school children might learn skills that would lift them out of poverty and be assimilated to the values - of canadian society - educators believed that using schools for reform purpose was in the best interest of Canadian society compulsory education opened more employment and introduced the educator as a social expert, a progressional who knew more about what was important for children than parents - compulsory education, medical examinations, school nurses, and lunch programs all were part of a new form of social engineering that would only increase in emphasis over the century - clara brett martin - 1874-1923 graduated with honours in math from trinity college - petitioned the law society of upper canada to be registered as a student - denied and told to move to US - tried to get the word person in law and society statues to include females - after 2 times finally accepted as a student at law at most prestigious law firms in toronto - harrased but completed degree and passed bar examinations - martin was finally admitted as a barrister and solicitor on feb 2 1897, first women in british empire entered into the legal profession - private child welfare programs became officially responsible for abandoned, abused and delinquent children - those who focused on poverty tended to attribute almost every tother cause than the failure of the economic system to distribute wealth equitably - continued idea of superior class helping inferior - they also sought elimination of wasteful graft and corruption through political reform, the creation of publicly operated utilities to reduce unnecessary taxation and the introduction of public planning - focuses on big city - many Canadians saw cities as the culmination of civilization and many grand plans made their appearances on paper - political reform of municipal government concentrated on throwing the rascals out, combined with structural changes to reduce the damage they could do when they were in - much of the impulse behind reform of all sorts came from fear of class warfare and moral degeneration - canadian population was at the progressive top of the racial scale - sexual morality was an important component of racism at the time - first serious efforts at large scale immigration restriction designed mainly to keep out the degenerates began in early years of the century - campaigns for social purity, immigration restriction and exclusion of asians all came out of the same stock of assumptions about heredity and environment that informed many other reform movements of the period - reformers often emphasized social and moral aspects, directing their efforts chiefly against new comers - immigration restrictions came in three senses - instance of good health, good character, resources of the individual immigrant - strong instances on preventing group immigration by certain people deemed unassimiable (asians, black) - limit the rights of the unwanted - 1906 new immigration act consolidated barring large categories of ppl (prostitiutes, pimps, insane, mentally retarded, deaf and dumb) - 1908 all immigration to canada has to come via a continuous journey on a through ticket from the country of origin - 1910 gave cabinet power to regulate immigration according to race to keep out prohibited and undesirable classes - could be deported on grounds of political or moral undesirability - political grounds for rejection included the advocacy by a person not a canadian citizen of the overthrow by force or violence of the government of great britian or canada - head tax on all immigrants except japanese - komagata maru Daniel Francis, Selling Canada, 7-67. - “i dont care what language a man speaks, or what religion he professes” - government minister for immigration declared 1899 - if he is honest and law abiding, if he will go on that land and make a living for himself and his family he is a desirable settler - 1901 immigrants tripled since 1896 and in 1906 it more than quadrupled - tens of millions of people left their homes in search of new opportunities across the ocean - canadian government launched an aggressive advertising campaign aimed at potential immigrants - canada had acquired the north west through negotiation and force of arms - 1869 government in ottawa struck a deal with hudson bay company and british government to take ownership of ruperts land, the companies vast fur trade territory in the interior - metis of red river colony objected to what they experienced as high handed colonial rule and set up their own government with leader louis riel - land in the north west was a commodity the government used to reward friends and public servants - the prospect of receiving land from a grateful government in return for service encouraged many young men to join the force - john a was determined to make north west part of canada and his response to red river showd that he was willing to use forced to do so - sent troops, initiated policies that prepared the way for a peaceful influx of settlers - creation of manitoba 160 km square surrounding the confluence of the assiniboine and red rivers - the rest of north west remained territories controlled from ottawa - challenge to populate new land with settlers - if canadians did not act americans might - macdonald instructed lieutenant governor of manitoba to suggest best policies for removal of any obstructions that might be present to the flow of population into the fertile land that lie between manitoba and the rocky mountains - government negotiated with private company, canadian pacific, to build a transcontinental railway (completed 1885) - opened land to settlers by way of the dominion lands act - legislation allowed for any male at least 21 yrs to obtain a quarter section of land (homestead 64 hectares) for 10$ fee so land as he lived on the land, made improvements, started cultivating it and became a british subject - homesteaders could also place a preemption on an adjoining quarter section for which they had 3 years to meet same requirements or could buy land belonging to one of the railways - macdonald created a police force, north west mounted police, to impose canadian law and negotiate a series of treaties with first nations in order to extinguish the rights to the land—-to clear way for settlement - william francis butler - hudson bay company had been telling everyone that ruperts land territory was a frozen wasteland inhabitable only by indians and hardly fur traders - establishing
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