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Mar 13- Ellen Fairclough and Igor Gouzenko .pdf

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HIST 2500
William Wicken

March 13: Ellen Fairclough and Igor Gouzenko Broad Themes: the Baby boom generation. Reading: Bumsted, pp. 356-99 including embedded texts on Igor Gouzenko (pp. 364-5), The NorthAtlantic Treaty 1949 (p. 367), Why do some Women like Sopa Opera? (p. 368), Live Drama on Early Television (pp. 394-5). - post ww2 1960—economic growth and prosperity in canada - production and consumer moved upwards - employment rose - increased its workforce, inflation was steady but never excessive - low interest rates - nation was in population growth rate that would become known as baby boom (uncharacteristic natural increase in population growth rate) - federal and provincial governments became active in providing new programs of social protection for their citizens - affluence - economic prosperity and growth were at roots of developments - planning was based on assumption of constant growth - 1946-1960 canada double, increasing canadian standard of living - canadians believed there were no limits to growth - operative economic wisdom was Keynesianism - rebuilding of war torn economy of Europe and asia - heavy expenditures on military defence during the cold war - foregin trade was an important component of candian affluence - canada became integrated into american trading markets as brat Britain decreased in importance as a trading partner - after 1954 banks were allowed to extend consumer credit and mortgage loans, before 1967 limited in interest they could change - canadas monetary policy was to increase the supply of money in circulation, producing inflation that eventually would run out of control - agriculture decline - growth in public sector, public administration and services necessary to manage the new state - many of the public service employees were highly educated white collar worker and by 1960 over half of canadians held white colour jobs - woman made up 30% of the workforce with their pay about 2/3rd of males - ontario produced over 50% of total manufacturing value added in the nation and dominated the manufacture of durable goods and big ticket consumer items in many industries - ontario turned out 98.8% of cars, 90.7% of industrial goods, 90% of agricultural implements, 80.7% of its major household appliances - canadian manufacturing served: domestic consumer market and huge military hardware to equip candas armed forces - significant expansion in western candian oil and gas - oil and gas began to be transported by pipeline from west to major centres of population and industry - burning of fossil fuels and development of nuclear power were the growth areas in the energy industry - affluence rather than effluence was the watchword - petrochemical plants dumped waste into surrounding waters and paper processing plants dumped poisonous mercury and other effluents into rivers and lakes - solid industrial waste was usually buried, often used as landfill to create new housing estates near large urban centres such as the love canal area in ny near niagra falls - inland rivers and lakes deteriorated into cesspools of industrial waste and human sewage - farmers dumped chemical fertilizers and week killers into the soil where they eventually ended up in underground aquifers - boom of post war years encouraged growth of ameircan direct investments in canada and rise of multinational corporation which usually had headquarters in US and branch plant operation in canada - 1950 3 quarters of total foreign investment in country was american —mining, manufacturing and petroleum - 59 foreign companies owned 60% canadian mining, oil and gas industries and 50% canadian manufacturing - production flourished on backs of american technology and production of goods and brand names - american advertising and cultural values created consumer demand on a continental basis and cnaaidan subsidiaries fulfilled this demand for the candian segment of their market - 1957 no other nation as highly industrialized as canada has such a large proportion of industry collected by non resident concerns - canada spent a far smaller proportion of its science dollar on the development side of research development - canada spent large sums of public money on scientific research but the nation was not getting much industrial advantage from the expenditures - an increased role for organized labour accompanied other economic trends of the affluent society - union membership increased and unions were organized in a number of new industries - during the war the federal government had decided to co-opt labour into the war effort - 1944 pc 1003— compulsory recognition and collective bargaining creating the machinery necessary to protect both management and labour in contested cases - improved working conditions and higher wages were the result - 1956: trades and labour congress of canada and Canadian congress of labour merged to form canadian labour congress (clc) - merger reduced jurisdictional disputes at top of canals table of labour organization, although it did not deal with questions of domination of international unions - the cold war - canada substantially increased its overseas diplomatic contacts with 35 posts abroad in 1944 and 36 by 1947, but didn't improve its international position - gouzenko affair - igor gouzenko was an obscure cipher clerk in russian embassy in ottawa - sept 1945 he brought material to rcmp that showed russians had organized spy ring in canada during the war - gouzenkos information and the subsequent arrests of canadian citizens (including one member of parliament) ere absolutely shocking - canada probed far more willing than people in other nations to believe that russia sought to dominate the world - canada and the US became closer trading parnters - marshall plan (US in 48) proposed to rebuin war torn Europe with unrestricted gifts of money and goods - if europe reconstruction was limited to american goods, canadian trade would shrink to nothing - canada needed permission for Europe to use ameircan money to buy canadian goods - igor gourzenko - moved to canada as secretary and interpret at trussing embassy - gouzenki was recalled to the soviet union but didn't want to so showed canada secret documentation to try and get to stay - king refused to deal with the matter because it might jeprodize canadian society relations - confirmed his so tires were true - he received no money from the government but his interviews in cosmo and his autobiography made him rich - americnas accepted north atlantic treaties military and security provisions - the search for middle power status - 1950 NK invated american supported south korea - korean war increased pressure for military buildup - the retreat from internationalism - - canada between two nuclear giants - focused on air—planes - the baby boom and suburban society - during depression, marriage and brith rates had decreased and average age at marriage had rise - 39-52 birth rates climbed because women who had married early tended to begin children early - the north atlantic treaty - determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilization of their peoples founded on the principles of democracy individual liberty and rule of law - 1) settle any international disputes with peace and security and justice not endangering - 2) contribute to further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions bringing better understanding of principles upon which these institutions are founded and promoting conditions of stability and wellbeing. encourage economic collaboration - 3)maintain and develop individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack - 4)parties will consult together whenever the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of parities are threatened - 5)parties agree that an armed attack against one of more of them shall be considered an attack against them all and will assist them - why do some women like soap opera - 58.3% of american women listen to serials - it takes ones mind off of ones own problems and troubles - fantasy included a wide who was a home make and houseful of perfect children - post war suburbia was not only highly tradition in its gender roles but tended to be retrogressive inits emphasis on the role of the female as children bearer and nurturer - radio, television and record player made it possible for popular culture to be consumed without ever leaving the - house - baby boom generation grew up in a child centered atmosphere in home and school encouraged to stay in school longer - loss of community through urbanization and suburbanization roved a real challenge for social control - canadian teenagers became avid consumers, providing a market for fast food, clothing, fads, acne medicines, cosmetics and music - 40s and 50s education for all was extended to secondary levels by raising school leaving age to 16 - new insistence on high schools diplomas for everyone represented a profound social revolution and created a need for more room at universities - canadians saw more education as the key to dealing with modern industrial conditions - immigration - canadian gov and ppl were exclusionists, racists and not humane towards immigration - wives & children of soldiers from england, holland were admitted into canada and given transport, documentation and transfer of money and possession - may 1947 kind encouraged immigration but also that canadas absorptive capacity must be taken into account - canada put jews low on the list of desired immigrants, partly for cultural reasons but also because of what the authorities thought prospective empires expected of new immigrants with robust health and strength - canada was unsympathetic to professions and intellectuals and artists - canada was capable of accepting larger numbers of immigrants from an economic standpoint and that such an acceptance by increasing the population should mean a higher physical production per capita and hence higher fear incomes for canadian citizens - jobs available for immigrants were at the bottom of the occupational chain & seasonal unemployment - canadian government provided little counselling or other assistance for the newcomers, leaving voluntary organizations to fill the gap as best they could - the post war newcomers had the great psychological advantage of knowing that they could never return to a former life (thus providing a sense of finality and permanence to their new situation and almost any material conditions were better than those they had suffered at refuse camp) - 1950 canada expanded admissible categories of european immigrants to include any healthy individual of good character with needed skills and an ability to integrate - canada now had an immigration policy of sorts and separate agency to administer i
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