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HIST 2600 (2)

Enduring Vision Ch 2

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HIST 2600
Marc Egnal

Chapter 2 - The Rise of the Atlantic World 1400-1625 - after Christopher Columbus’s landing in the New World in 1492, the entire economy of Europe will change; it’s the formation of the Atlantic world; after this date, the people of Europe, Africa and North/South America become intertwined in trade, colonization, religion and war Before Atlantic world – 1400s Africa: - kingdoms and empires of various sizes/wealth; caravan trade – mostly gold and slaves; after gold was the new currency in Europe, demand soared - African families had close kinships; extended families – clans; women married young b/c children were part of the work force and men who could afford it, had more than one wife; slaves were usually taken in by the new family so it wasn’t widespread or as destructive as the European slave trade - Farming was small scale even though there was vast amounts of land available; soil was never really exhausted - “West African religion emphasized the importance of continuous revelations; therefore there was no fixed dogma or hierarchy like in Christianity or Islam.” - In the 15 century, West Africa was fragmented politically and Islam gained a foothold Europe: - in the heights of the Renaissance period - Renaissance: rebirth of classical Greek and Roman culture that swept Europe from the 15 – 17 th th century; return to the ideal times; focused on philosophy, nature, exploring the world/mapping the world -> a response to social tension; looking for social stability - period of time where the wealthy had all the power in society; gender, wealth, inherited position and political power ruled life - conflicts between sates, religion, between rich/poor th - issues b/c of the changes – both English, France and Spain unified around the 15 century; took power away from the nobility and Catholic Church; high taxes/rents/others; poor harvests and wars and most importantly, drastic population growth -> by 1600, pop in Europe was 100 million; pop in England went from 2.5 million in 1500 to 5 million by 1620; towns were dirty and disease ridden; ppl everywhere starving and malnutrition’d b/c of the little Ice Age which ruined crops, and some places had famine; traditional society was a system of reciprocity -> meant that upper class had to be fair to their tenants and the lower class had to be show their deference - Joint-stock company: business entity in which the entire business is owned by shareholders; way to raise large sums of money by selling shares in an enterprise; created a way for potential colonizaters to raise large amounts of money w/ limited risks for the individual investors - Families were small – usually nuclear; “family was the principle economic unit in European society and the household, the primary social organization” - From the 14 – 17 century, Europe was undergoing major changes; the Renaissance, the rise of nation-states, population growth, the rise of market economy and the Reformation set the stage for territorial expansion and conflict Religious Upheavals - By 1400, mostly Christian but also had Jews and Muslims; Christian Crusades against the Muslims, Ottoman Empire conquers much of the Balkans and Catholic Spain/Portugal expel Jews from the Iberian Peninsula -> wars of conquest under the banner of religion - Pope authorized dispensing extra blessings (indulgences) to repentant sinners in return for ‘good th th works’ like donating money to the church; basically buying your way into heaven – 15 -16 century - 1571, German friar Martin Luther complained about the process; “materialism and corruption”; when the Pope/those in power tried to quiet them down, he turned around and accused the Mass, priests and the Pope; this sparked the start of the Protestant Reformation; Luther believed that God chose who to save; believers should trust in God alone - Protestant Reformation: split of reformers from the Roman Catholic church - John Calvin: Early Protestant theologian who believed in ‘predestination’ - Protestants still shared a lot in common with Christianity; reading the Bible was very important therefore so was literary and so Protestantism fostered education - The Catholic church underwent a CounterReformation – Pope worked to weed out corruption; created the modern Roman Catholic church The Reformation in England 1533-1625 - King Henry VIII wanted to annul his marriage b/c he didn’t have a male heir; the pope refused so Henry broke with the church; he got Parliament to annul the wedding instead and created a new Church of England (the Anglican Church) which he was the ‘supreme head’ of - Religious conflicts in the country; Henry’s son Edward VI (ruled 1547-1553) veered the English church toward Protestantism and then Henry’s daughter Mary (crowned 1553) tried to restore Catholicism by burning several hundred Protestants at the stake (oh burn~); Elizabeth I (queened 1558) - Most of English was Protestant by the time Elizabeth I was crowned - Puritan: English followers of Calvin; militant Calvinist minority; demanded the purification of the Church of England; believed in predestination, didn’t take Eucharist and believed everyone should learn/read the Bible, self-discipline a big aspect - In the throes of religious transformation, Reformation England saw the rise of Puritanism Europe and the Atlantic World 1440-1600 Portugal and the Atlantic, 1440-1600 - Portugal decided to deal trade directly with Asia/Africa rather than going through Muslim middlemen - improved maritime technology – including improved ships, use of the compass and better maps; technological advances - first to go around Africa to get to India The New Slavery and Racism - slavery was already in place in West Africa but it wasn’t until the Europeans that it turned into an intercontinental business - this changed society in West Africa – small kingdoms expanded to “service” the trade; kings/leaders became rich; adopted Christianity - New slavery: harsh form of slavery based on racism; arose as a result of Portuguese slave trade w/ Africa - This Atlantic trade business spelled out demographic catastrophe for West Africa and its people; close of 12 million Africans gets old as slaves; dehumanized; were viewed as property; b/c victims of the new slavery were physically distinctive and culturally alien, slavery became a life-long, hereditary status To America and Beyond 1492-1541 - Columbus’s sets off to find Asia or a shorter route to Asia; he was convinced that if he went West far enough, he’ll get to Asia; the concept of an North American continent totally didn’t exist - English fishing boats, Norse Vikings were probably the first to reach the New World - Columbus got funded by the newly unified Spain; the Spanish monarchy wanted to make sure the Portuguese weren’t the only ones trading with Asia; he sets off in 1492 - Treaty of Tordesillas: Agreement between Spain and Portugal that they would divide all future discoveries between each other; signed in 1494 - Columbus establishes 3 Spanish colonies but never actually gets to Asia - At the same time, English King Henry VII ignores the treaty between Spain/Portugal and sends out his own explorer; in 1497, John Cabot goes across the Atlantic; John Cabot: Italian explorer who establishes English claims to the New World; he claims Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Grand Banks; he dies on the way back so England doesn’t actually capitalize on his discoveries until 80yrs later - 1500 – Portugal claims Brazil - it’s clear now that there’s another land mass between Europe and Asia Spain’s Conquistadors 1492-1526 - Columbus enslaved the native people; forced to look for gold; he was the first Spanish conquistador - Disease, overwork and malnutrition killed thousands of natives; African slaves shipped in to replace them; @ first the friars and the King tried to stop the exploitation of the natives but no one cared about the exploitation of the African slaves - Spanish settlers settled across the Carribean in search for gold and slaves - Hernan Cortes: Spanish conqueror of the Aztec Empire; 1519, he went inland to conquer Mexico; by 1521, new city Mexico City was being built on top of the ruins of Tenchtitlan; Central America = New Spain th - for the rest of the 16 century, conquistadors/officials continued to expand New Spain until it stretched from Mexico to Chile; before European contact, the pop in Mexico was between 13-25 million people but by 1600, the population was 700,000 - like North America, epidemic of smallpox wiped out the population The Columbian Exchange - Columbian Exchange: the exchange of people, plants, animals and diseases within the Atlantic world as a result of European voyages
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