Textbook Notes (369,099)
Canada (162,378)
York University (12,903)
HLST 1010 (139)
Chapter 10

Health Chapter 10.docx

3 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
HLST 1010
Dennis Raphael

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Health Ch. 10  Tommy Douglas- father of Medicare, considered the greatest Canadian of all time th  Until the late 20 century, Canada and US had similar health care  Some of the disturbing changes in the Canadian health care system represent the cracks in the historical foundation of our health care system  US and Canada both originally colonies of England, so they have common heritages th  19 century o Canada’s first medical degree in 1833, hospitals were a place for the dying o Informal healing traditions such as herbalism and midwifery o Science, licensing, and regulation were not part of early healing, was learned through apprenticeship o British North America (BNA) Act in 1867- reflected contemporary experiences with disease and the relative unimportance of what we now call scientific medicine th o Diseases in 19 century were thought to be due to filth and decay rather than germs o Like Britain, Canada began to sanitize the city (reduce garbage, clean water, proper design of communities) o BNA Act split jurisdiction for health care between federal and provincial governments o Act focused on control of infections, public health, and the state, but not on curative medicine o Robert Koch in 1882 isolated bacteria that caused tuberculosis o This allowed physicians and public health departments to focus their attention on what caused the diseases instead of the social and physical conditions on which they bred  20 century o After 1900 medical education and research became scientific and institutional o Health care professions became regulated and stratified by race, class, and gender o Male and class dominance emerged in medical practice o Hospitals became centers of care o Medical schools sought affiliation with universities o Women were excluded from education and practice, when before they were the primary informal caregivers o Emily Stowe, Canada’s first woman doctor, studied medicine in US o Many others went to US to study medicine  Robert Koch o Established causal relationship between bacterial infection and disease o Paved the way for development of antibiotics and vaccines to treat or prevent infections  Insuring health (1900-1980) o Canada and US share early traditions of health care insurance o Before 1900 health care was limited and cheap because medicines were compounded locally o Professionalism and science combined to make health care more necessary and costly o By the end of the First World War, many European countries recognized a public need for access to hospital and medical care and established a government- administered health insurance o Physicians’ medical practices declined during the 1930s and they struggled to earn a living o In 1945 the Canadian Prime Minister and the US President both proposed universal health insurance and both of them failed o Growth of hospitals and escalating costs of hospital care prompted need for broader insurance coverage o Hospital and Diagnostics Services Act in 1957- made coverage of hospital services more readily available but only half of Canadians had coverage for any other kind of expense o Premier Tommy Douglas in 1961 introduced a comprehensive medical insurance plan in Saskatchewan (Medicare) o Institutionalized the model of private practice/public payment o Traditional fee-for-service model of payment for physicians o 1967 Medical Care Act- universality, comprehensiveness, and portability o In the US: Medicare- covered all hospital and some physician costs for Americans over 65 and some people with disabilities. Medicaid- federal grants to the states to reimburse doctors and hospitals that cared for medical indigents (people in need) and people on welfare o However health statistics in Canada and US were very si
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