CHAPTER 2—SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE Symbolic Interactionism (micro):
- It's a school of thought that stems from the Weberian tradition (1864-1920) where they focus on the interactions
between individuals and the meanings that these interactions create.
- Meaning arise from interactions that you have with others in society.
- takes a small scale view of society and focuses on the interactions between individuals and through this it can
explain social order.
- The meaning we give something can change due to our interactions or just change overtime and things can have
different values depending on the person.
- It was first defined by Herbert Blummer in 1937 and he defined it by three key principles:
1) Each individual gives a meaning to certain things and act based on those meanings
2) These meanings arise out of social interactions
3) People change depending on their interactions with people/objects and give value to certain things.
Social Constructionism (macro):
- School of thought that came out of symbolic interactionism
- Interested in relating to the broader aspects of society
- More sensitive to boarder issues and how society interacts with people’s ideas
- Theory that knowledge, theories and many aspects of the world are not real, but because we give them reality
through social agreements.
- We give everything meaning and our identity is created by the interactions with other people.
- Explains reality through the thoughts of human and not fundamental facts
- Argues that the idea of we as people creating everything
- Tries to look at the relationship between personal understanding and how they shape society and vice versa
- Everything that people say and do build together to create facts. It can be argued that all medical facts are socially
- Irving Zola in 1972 created the Medicalization theory.
- It's processed by which symptoms, life events, and deviant behaviours become defined as a medical
- There are 5 steps to the process of Medicalization of Deviance
1) Behaviour being