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Chapter 3

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Human Resources Management
HRM 2600
Monica Belcourt

HRM Chapter 3- Equity Diversity in HRM  Employment equity: the employment of individuals in a fair and nonbiased manner  Equity means fairness and impartiality  There are four designated groups: women, visible minorities, Aboriginal people, and person with disabilities who have been disadvantaged in employment  Status of Designated Groups  Face significant disadvantages in employment, even though they make up 60 percent of the workforce  Some of the disadvantages include high unemployment, occupational segregation, pay inequities, and limited opportunities for career progress  Women are underrepresented in many occupations ex. Board members, semi- professionals  Female- earnings lag those in men (85 cents for every dollar earned by men)  People with disabilities represent 14 percent of Canada’s population and 1.6 percent in the workforce  People with disabilities face attitudinal barriers, physical demands that are unrelated to actual job requirements and inadequate access to the technical and human support systems that would make productive employment possible  Employer can seek to redress attitudinal barriers by focusing on abilities not disabilities  Visible minorities represent about 16.2 percent of Canadians and 15.4 percent of the labour force.  Studies have shown that Latin Americans and Southeast Asians experience lower- than average incomes, higher rates of unemployment, and reduced access to job interviews, even when they have the same qualifications as other candidates  Systematic barriers that negatively affect employment for VM include culturally biased aptitude tests, lack of recognition of foreign credentials, and excessively high language requirements.  Benefits of Employment Equity  Larger applicant pool  Avoiding costly human rights complaints  Enhanced ability to recruit and retain  Enhanced employee morale  Improved corporate image The Legal Framework  The Charter of Rights and Freedoms  Guarantees fundamental rights to every Canadian: fundamental freedoms, democratic rights, mobility rights, legal rights, equality rights, language rights  Charter only protects government and public sector employees NOT private sector employees  The Canadian Human Rights Act (CHRA)  Passed June 14, 1977 became effective March 1978  This act proclaims that every individual should have an equal opportunity with other individuals to make himself of herself the life that he or she is able and wishes to have, consistent with his or her duties and obligations as a member of society, without being hindered in or prevented from doing so by discriminatory practices based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex or marital status, or convictions for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or by discriminatory employment practices based on physical handicap  Act applies to all federal government departments and agencies  Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ): justifiable reason for discrimination based on business reasons of safety or effectiveness. (without causing undue hardship)  Enforcement of the Canadian Human Rights Act  Complainant completes a written report.  A CHRC representative reviews the facts.  If the complaint is accepted, an investigator is assigned and gathers more facts.  A report is submitted recommending substantiation or non-substantiation of the allegation.  If the complaint is substantiated, parties may reach settlement or a human rights tribunal may be appointed to further investigate and determine settlement.  If a person obstructs an investigation or tribunal can be found guilty of an offence and can be fined or sentenced to jail time  Provincial human rights laws are enforced in a manner similar as described above  Pay Equity  in the federal jurisdiction  Equal pay for work of equal value  Equal pay for work of comparable worth  the goal of pay equity is to eliminate the historical wage gap between men and women  implementation of pay equity is based on comparing the work of female- dominated job classes to the value of work performed in male- dominated jobs by males  the pay equity system is complaint- based , complaints can be raised by employees, an employee or a bargaining agent The Implementation of Employment Equity in Organizations  Step 1: Senior Management Commitment  Top down strategy (a more supportive culture is created when the CEO or owner- operator publicly introduces written policy describing the organization’s commitment to EE.  Policy statements  Communication tools (periodic information sessions, workplace posters, departmental or small group meetings conducted by line management, orientation and training programs  Assignment of responsible senior staff  Consult with members of designated groups and/or bargaining agents in unionized settings  Step 2: Data Collection and Analysis  The development of an internal workforce profile is an important tool in employment equity planning  Stock data: data showing the status of designated groups in occupational categories and compensation levels (provides a snapshot of the organizations)  Flow data: data that provide a profile of the employment decisions affecting designated groups  The distribution of members of designated groups in applications, interviews, hiring decisions, training and promotion opportunities and terminations.  Provides info on the movement of employees into and through the organization  A self- identification form should include:  The employment equity policy.  A statement that the form will be confidential.  Categories for self identification with brief explanations and examples.  An indication that the form has been reviewed by the relevant human rights agency.  Spaces for comments and suggestions.  The name of the contact person.  Workforce Utilization Analysis  The process of comparing the composition of members of designated groups within an organization against composition of the employer’s relevant labour market.  Underutilization: term applied to designated groups that are not utilized or represented in the employer’s workforce proportional to their numbers in the labo
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