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Canada (162,376)
York University (12,903)
HRM 3450 (16)
Ron Ophir (16)

Introduction, Theories & Legislation

5 Pages

Human Resources Management
Course Code
HRM 3450
Ron Ophir

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Chapter 1 - Despite extraordinary corporate and media attention paid to diversity in the past thirty years, discrimination, inequality and exclusion persist in organizations - Valuing diversity can benefit organizations in the areas of cost, resource acquisition, marketing, creativity, problem solving and system flexibility - If an organization develops a reputation for valuing all types of employees, it will become known as an employer of choice, in which all workers from all backgrounds feel they have the opportunity to work, grow and be treated fairly. Diversity • Real or perceived differences among people in race, ethnicity, sex, age, physical and mental ability, sexual orientation, religion, work and family status, weight and appearance, and other identity based attributes that affect their interactions and relationships. • Identity groups  Collectives people use to categorize themselves and others  Are often readily apparent to others, strong sources of personal meaning, and related to historical disparities among groups in treatment opportunities and outcomes. • Socially Constructed • Differential power and/or dominance relations between groups • Context: Historical and current/local factors Employment or labour market discrimination occurs when personal characteristics of applicants and workers that are unrelated to productivity are valued in the labour market. Types of Employment Discrimination People with identical productive characteristics are regarded differently because of demographic factors such as race, ethnic origin, sex, age, physical ability, religion and immigrant status. • Productive characteristics include occupational and human capital variables such as education, skills and tenure. • Access discrimination  Occurs when people are denied employment opportunities or “access” to jobs • Treatment discrimination  Occurs when people are employed but are treated differently once employed, receiving fewer job-related rewards, resources or opportunities than they should receive based on job-related criteria Inclusion  the degree to which “different voices of a diverse workforce are respected and heard.” Primary Labour Market • Includes jobs in large organizations, with more opportunities for advancement and retirement, vacation and medical benefits • Whites are more likely to work in this market Secondary Labour Market • Low skilled, low paid, insecure jobs • Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to work in this market Dominant and non-dominant are used to distinguish between more powerful and less powerful groups, acknowledging the importance of power in access to and the control of resources Net new entrants  the difference between those who entered the workforce (newcomers to the workforce) and those who left the workforce (e.g. via retirements, death…) 6 Effective management of diversity could benefit organizations in areas of: (Cox & Blake) • Cost • Resource acquisition • Marketing • Creativity • Problem solving • System flexibility Cost • Employee turnover and litigation  Reports of lower satisfaction and higher turnover of women and minorities when compared to men and Whites. o This is a concern especially as the number of women and minorities in the workforce increases  Increased diversity is associated with lower attachment, turnover and discomfort for people of different backgrounds  Costs associated with turnover include: • Exit interviews • Lost productivity while positions are unfilled • Recruiting costs for replacement employees • Lost business Resource Acquisition • An organization’s ability to attract and retain employees from different backgrounds  Selecting from a small subset
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