Measurement, Reliability and Validity

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York University
Human Resources Management
HRM 3470
Mary Jo Ducharme

Chapter 2 Validity – getting at the truth. The best performance of an individual that aligns with company’s strategy. Are we getting at what we need to get at? The goal of a selection system is to: • Goal is to hire most qualified applicant • Must know what KSAOs are required – known by doing a thorough and accurate job analysis • Should be based upon testing methods not a gut feeling Effective Recruitment & Selection: Identifies applicants with appropriate KSAOs: Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Other Descriptive Statistics Mode – the most frequent Mean – the average Median – middle score Range – the difference between the highest and lowest scores Standard Deviation – computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean Correlation We need to correlate our selection system with performance on the job. • Relationship between two variables – smoking and cancer • Does not imply one variable causes another – ice cream sales higher, crime higher. Correlates with weather, doesn’t mean they cause each other • Correlation coefficient (r) - Ranges from -1 to +1 : -0.9 strong negative correlation, +0.9 strong positive correlation Positive correlation – a relationship between 2 variables where as one variable increases, so does the other. Smoking and cancer. More studying, better grade. Negative correlation – a relationship between 2 variables where as one variable increases, the other decreases. As number of children you have increases, satisfaction with marriage, job and life decreases. Reliability - the degree to which measurements are free from random measurement errors. Reliability can be affected by: o Individual circumstances/characteristics – person having a bad day o Chance – noise in car park o Non-standardized testing Methods of Estimating Reliability o Test and Retest – test same people twice with the same test. If two scores correlate, you have a reliable test. o Alternate Forms – different forms of different tests, given to same or different people. If scores correlate, you have a reliable test. o Internal Consistency – if items in say a M/C test correlate with each other o Inter-Rater Reliability – if two observers are observing an interview they should get similar results. Predictor  selection system/selection tool that we’re talking about Criterion  performance on job We want our predictor to predict our criterion. Criterion deficiency – is everything that is important to performance appraisal tool included Criterion contamination – something in performance appraisal tool, that shouldn’t be there – waitress get tip based on quality of food, even though she doesn’t cook it Criterion relevancy – performance appraisal tool has to be based on relevant information Validity is whether or not we’re tapping in to what we think we’re tapping in to. Only one validity. 1. A test measures what it purports to measure 2. Inferences made from test scores are supported by research There are many methods to assess one validity: • Content validity – everything that is important has a role in the test. o Tying in all material into test – testing all chapters on exam • Specify performance domain • Tie in to test items • Refers to the relationship of test content to job content • Achieved through job analysis and evaluation of test content for job relevance Criterion-related validity • Established by showing how strongly a predictor relates to a criterion • Resulting validity coefficient indicates the strength of that relationship • Predictive criterion related validity – hire so
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