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HUMA 1400 Chapter Notes -Nanjing, Wu Wei, Taoism

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HUMA 1400
N/ A

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Lecture # 3 Ming-Qing Tran sitio n
Factors lea ding t o t h e fall of th e Ming d yn a s t y:
1. Imjin Wars (1592-1596 & 15 9 7-1598) in Korea
2. Factional politics, e s p. b e twee n e u nuchs (太太 taijian or 太太 huangu an) a n d literati (esp. of
the Donglin Acade my 太太太太)
3. Famine in much of northern China
4. Flooding in centr al China
5. Economic crisis du e to insufficient supply of silver
6. Widesprea d epide mic from Zhejiang to Hen a n; the
Sha anxi e arthqu ake of 1556
7. Military exp ens es, esp. in the north ern & northwest ern frontiers
Yimin (遺遺)
-re mn ant s ubjects
oi.e. Ming loyalists who did not die resisting th e Manchu or who did
not com mit suicide.
-Exist ential choices:
oTo continue resistanc e
oTo retire from official position a nd b eco m e a far m er, m o nk or to
take care of elderly p arent(s)
oTo a cc ept a n d pledge loyalty to th e n ew regim e
oTo m ove from defiance to resignation a nd finally a cco m mod ation
-Note: so m e who ca m e over to th e Qing would b e conde m n e d (by
other Ming loyalists or often by the Qianlong e m p eror) a s serving
two m a st ers erch e n 太太 or 太太
oOf Qian Qianyi 太太太 (1582-166 4, poet a nd literatus), the Qianlong
e m p eror in 1769 wrote h e was d eficient in m oral integrity a n d
h e was not worthy of b elonging to th e hu m a n race 太太太太, 太太太太太太

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oIn 17 7 7, the Qianlong e m p eror a nnounced that a n ew s ection,
Erch en zhuan 太太太 (Records of Twice-serving Officials), was to b e
a d d e d to the official Qing history for disgrac ed officials
Lit erary th e m e s:
-reunion tua nyu a n
-Dre a m s m e n g of the p a st a nd/or prese nt
-Reality a nd illusion/real a nd unreal
-Historical allusions (e.g. of the high Tang or th e [southern] Song-
Yuan dyn a stic transition) to the pres e nt
-Com m u nication with th e gods, a nc estors, for m er e m p erors e tc
-Journ eys of e nlighten m e nt (usually failures)
Th e Play s of Wu Wei y e (遺遺遺)
(Dietrich Tscha nz, Wu Wei y es Ae sth e tics of Dyna s tic
Tran sitio n
1. Linchu n g e (臨臨臨) Facin g S prin g Pa vilio n
-Probably written b etwe e n 16 45-47
-Set a g ainst transition from Chen (557-89) and Sui (5 81-618)
-Prot agonists: 1) Lady Xian 太太太 (a tribal chieftain in Lingnan) a nd 2)
Zhang Lihua 太太太 (a concubine of th e last Chen ruler)
-Su m m ary:
Act 1 : Ordere d by th e Chen e m p eror, Lady Xian c alls a m e e ting of
regional chiefs, foreign e nvoys etc to asc ertain their loyalty
Act 2 : Lady Xian is granted a n a udience with the e m p eror in the
capital, Nanjing, a n d receives honourary title of Protector-Gener al of
Lingnan. Befriends Zhang Lihua with who m there is a n imm e diate
Act 3 : Lady Xian & Zhang Lihua visit the Clear Spring Monastery to
listen to a s er mon by the m onk, Zhish eng 太太. Unknown to the ms elves,
they were im mortals in for m er lives a n d were d eities honoured a t this
m o n a stery. Zhisheng att e m pts to infor m the m of th eir for mer identities
a n d warn the m of th e imm an e nt fall of the Chen dyna sty. Though th ey
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