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HUMA1400 #4.pdf

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HUMA 1400
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Lecture #4
The Individual: considered a point in a net of social relations
Primary unit = family (jia ); society viewed as extension of family
Five Human Relationships
1. husband, wife
2. ruler, minister
3. friend, friend
4. younger brother, elder brother
5. father, son
- hierarchical 等級制度的
- yin-yang
- shaped by “Five Virtues”
1) Ren humanity
2) Li ritual
3) Zhi wisdom
4) Shin sincerity
5) Yi social justice
Jia family
- Patrilineal 父系的: descent 家系; 侵襲 was traced thought the male
line, i.e. from father to son, over generations
- Patriarchal 家長制的: the family unit was formally led and formally
represented by the senior male
- Virilocal: wives generally married into their husbands’ families, both
physically and symbolically
- Shared budget and property: family expenditures were shared until
the family was divided, and the family (or a group of closely related
families) contributed to and drew upon shared property for ritual and
emergency needs.
- Family functioned as a corporate entity.
Social ranks
1. Scholars officials shi -> ethical guidance
2. Peasants nong -> primary producers in society
3. Artisans gong
4. Merchants shang
Beyond the 4 strata
- The emperor and imperial family: the 4 strata are classification of the
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general populace only, whether elite or non-elite
- The “mean people”, declasse groups
1. Actors, musicians and entertainers
2. Courtesans and prostitutes
3. Butchers 小販; 肉商, nightsoil collectors, corners, executioners
4. Soldiers
5. Beggars
6. Criminals
- Buddhist monk, Daoist priests, nuns
Upper classes in the 18th century
Ethnicity 族地位
Qing society was also differentiated along ethnic lines why?
- Manchus were legally superior to all other groups
- Segregated 種族隔離的
- Barred from trade or labour, hereditary 世襲 military
bannermen(Manchu people)
- Intermarriage 聯姻; 近親婚姻 with Chinese banned
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