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Chapter  15:  Europe  Transformed:  Reform  and  State  Building       Absolutism:  A  form  of  government  where  the  sovereign  power  or  ultimate  authority  rested  in  the  hands   of  a  monarch  (ruler)  who  claimed  to  rule  by  divine  right  and  was  therefore  responsible  only  to   God.     Protestant  Reformation:   The  western  European  religious  reform  movement  in  the  16 th  century  that   divided  Christianity  into  Catholic  and  Protestant  groups .     New  Monarchies:  The  governments  of  France,  England,  and  Spain  at  the  end  of  the  15h  century,  wh ere   the  rulers  were  successful  in  reestablishing  or  extending  centralized  royal  authority,  suppressing  the   nobility,  controlling  the  church,  and  insisting  upon  the  loyalty  of  all  peoples  living  in  their  territories.       Christian  Humanism  (northern  Renaissan ce  humanism):  an  intellectual  movement  in  northern   Europe  un  the  late  15  and  early  16  centuries  that  combined  the  interest  in  the  classics  of  the  Italian   Renaissance  with  an  interest  in  the  sources  of  early  Christianity,  including  the  New  Testament  and  the   writings  of  the  church  fathers.     Relics:  the  bones  of  Christian  saints  of  objects  intimately  associated  with  saints  that  were  considered   worthy  of  veneration.     Indulgences:  the  remission  of  part  or  all  of  the  temporal  punishment  in  purgatory  due  to  si n;  granted  for   charitable  contributions  and  other  good  deeds.  Indulgences  became  a  regular  practice  of  the  Christian   church  in  the  High  Middle  Ages,  and  their  abuse  was  instrumental  in  sparking  Luther’s  reform  movement   in  the  16  century.     Justification  by  faith:  the  primary  doctrine  of  the  Protestant  Reformation;  taught  that  humans  are  saved   not  through  good  works,  but  by  the  grace  of  God,  bestowed  freely  through  the  sacrifice  of  Jesus.     Predestination:  the  belief,  associated  with  Calvinism,  that  God ,  as  a  consequence  of  his  foreknowledge  of   all  events,  has  predetermined  those  who  will  save  (the  elect)  and  those  who  will  be  damned.     Mercantilism:  an  economic  theory  that  held  a  nation’s  prosperity  depended  on  its  supply  of  gold  and   silver  and  that  the  total  volume  of  trade  is  unchangeable;  therefore,  advocated  that  the  government  play   an  active  role  in  the  economy  by  encouraging  exports  and  discouraging  imports,  especially  through  the   use  of  tariffs  (prices/rates/bills/fares).       Joint-­‐stock  company:  a  company  or  association  that  raises  capital  by  selling  shares  to  individuals  who   receive  dividends  on  their  investment  while  a  board  of  directors  run  the  company.     Divine-­‐right  monarchy:  a  monarchy  based  on  the  belief  that  monarchs  receive  their  power  directly  fr om   God  and  are  responsible  to  no  one  except  God.     Limited  (constitutional)  monarchy:  a  system  of  government  in  which  the  monarch  is  limited  by  a   representative  assembly  and  by  the  duty  to  rule  in  accordance  with  the  laws  of  the  land.     Baroque:  a  style  that  dominated  Western  painting,  sculpture,  architecture,  and  music  from  about  1580   –   1730,  generally  characterized  by  elaborate  ornamentation  and  dramatic  effects.  Important  practitioners   included  Bernini,  Rubens,  Handel,  and  Bach.         Chapter  16:  The  Muslim  E mpires     Bey:  a  provincial  governor  in  the  Ottoman  Empire     Sultan:  “holder  of  power”,  a  title  commonly  used  by  Muslim  rulers  in  the  Ottoman  Empire,  Egypt,  and   elsewhere;  still  in  use  in  parts  of  Asia,  sometimes  for  regional  authorities.     Janissaries:  an  elite  core  of  eight  thousand  troops  personally  loyal  to  the  sultan  of  the  Ottoman  empire.     Pashas:  an  administrative  official  of  the  Ottoman  Empire,  responsible  for  collecting  taxes  and  maintaining   order  in  the  provinces;  later  some  became  hereditary  rulers.     Harem:  the  private  domain  of  a  ruler  such  as  the  sultan  in  the  Ottoman  Empire  or  the  caliph  of  Baghdad ,   generally  large  and  mostly  inhabited  by  the  extended  family.     Devshirme:    in  the  Ottoman  Empire,  a  system  (literally,  “collection”)  of  training  talente d  children  to  ne   administrators  or  members  of  the  sultan’s  harem;  originally  meritocratic,  by  the  17 th  century,  it   degenerated  (fell)  into  a  hereditary  caste.       Grand  vizier:  the  chief  executive  in  the  Ottoman  Empire,  under  the  sultan.     Sipahis:  in  the  Ottoman  Empire,  local  cavalry  elites,  who  held  fiefdoms  (property  owned  by  a  lord)  and   collected  taxes.       Sublime  Porte:  the  office  of  the  grand  vizier  in  the  Ottoman  Empire     Zamoindars:  Indian  tax  collectors,  who  were  assigned  land,  from  which  they  kept  part  of  the  revenue.  The   British  revived  the  system  in  a  misguided  attempt  to  create  a  landed  gentry.     Purdah:  the  Indian  term  for  the  practice  among  Muslims  and  some  Hindus  of  isolating  women  and   preventing  them  from  associating  with  men  outside  the  home.                                             Chapter  17:  The  East  Asian  World     Banners:  originally  established  in  1639  by  the  Qing  dynasty,  the  Eight  Banners  were  administrative   divisions  into  which  all  Manchu  families  were  placed.  Banners  quickly  evolved  into  the  basis  of  Manchu   military  organization  with  each  required  to  raise  and  support  a  prescribed  number  of  troops.     Dyarchy:  during  the  Qing  dynasty  in  China,  a  system  in  which  all  important  national  and  provincial   administrative  positions  were  shared  equally  by  Chinese  and  Manch us,  which  helped  to  consolidate  both   Manchu  rule  and  their  assimilation.       Kowtow:  the  ritual  of  prostration  and  touching  of  the  forehead  to  the  ground,  demanded  of  all  foreign   ambassadors  to  the  Chinese  court  as  a  symbol  of  submission.     Han:       Ronin:  Japanese  warriors  made  unemployed  by  the  developments  in  the  early  modern  era,  sice  samurai   were  forbidden  by  tradition  to  engage  in  commerce.     Eta:  in  feudal  Japan,  a  class  of  hereditary  slaves  who  were  responsible  for  what  were  considered   degrading  occupations,  such  as  curing  leather  and  burying  the  dead.     Yangban:  the  aristocratic  class  in  Korea.  During  the  Yi  dynasty,  entry  into  the  bureaucracy  was   limited  to   members  of  this  class.     Chonmin:  in  Korea,  the  lowest  class  in  society  consisting  of  slaves  and  wor kers  in  certain  undesirable   occupations  such  as  butchers;  literally,  “base  people”.                                                       Chapter  19:  The  West  on  the  Eve  of  a  New  World  Order     Scientific  Revolution:  the  transition  from  the  medieval  worldview  to  a  larger  secular,  ratio nal  and   materialistic  perspective;  began  in  the  17 th  century  and  was  popularized  in  the  18 .   th   Geocentric  Theory:  the  idea  that  the  earth  is  at  the  center  of  the  universe  and  that  the  sun  and  other   celestial  objects  revolve  around  the  earth,     Heliocentric  Theory:  the  idea  that  the  sun  (not  the  earth)  is  at  the  center  of  the  universe.     World-­‐machine:  Newton’s  conception  of  the  universe  as  one  hug,  regulated,  and  uniform  machine  that   operated  according  to  natural  laws  in  absolute  time,  space  and  motion.     Enlightenment:  the  18  century  intellectual  movement,  led  by  the  philosophes,  that  stressed  the   application  of  reason  and  the  scientific  method  to  all  aspects  of  life.     Scientific  Method:  a  method  of  seeking  knowledge  through  inductive  principles;  uses  experi ments  and   observations  to  develop  generalizations.     Philosophes:  intellectuals  of  the  18  century  Enlightenment  who  believed  in  applying  a  spirit  of  rational   criticism  to  all  things,  including  religion  and  politic,  and  who  focused  on  improving  and  enjoyin g  the   world,  rather  than  on  the  after  life.     Separation  of  powers:  a  doctrine  enunciated  by  Montesquieu  in  the  eighteenth  century  that  separate   executive,  legislative  and  judicial  powers  serve  to  limit  and  control  each  other.     Deism:  belief  in  God  as  the  c reator  of  the  universe  who,  after  setting  it  in  motion,  ceased  to  have  any   direct  involvement  in  it  and  allowed  it  to  run  according  to  its  own  natural  laws.     Laissez-­‐faire:  “to  let  alone.”  An  economic  doctrine  that  holds  that  an  economy  is  best  served  when  the   government  does  not  interfere  but  allows  the  economy  to  self -­‐regulate  according  to  the  forces  of  supply   and  demand.     Feminism:  the  belief  in  the  social,  political,  and  economic  equality  of  sexes;  also,  organized  activity  to   advance  women’s  rights.                                         Chapter  19:  The  Beginnings  of  Modernization:  Industrialization  and  Nationalism     Proletariat:  the  industrial  working  class;  in  Marxism,  the  class  that  will  ultimately  overthrow  the   bourgeoisie.     Marxism:  the  political,  economic,  and  social  t heories  of  Karl  Marx,  which  included  the  idea  that  history  is   the  story  of  class  struggle  and  that  ultimately  the  proletariat  will  overthrow  the  bourgeoisie  and  establish   a  dictatorship  en  route  to  a  classless  society.       Class  Struggle:  the  basis  of  the  Marxist  analysis  of  history,  which  says  that  the  owners  of  the  means  of   production  have  always  oppressed  the  workers  and  predicts  an  inevitable  revolution.     Revisionism:  a  socialist  doctrine  that  rejected  Marx’s  emphasis  on  class  struggle  and  revolution  and   argued  instead  that,  workers  should  work  through  political  parties  to  bring  about  gradual  change.     Revolutionary  socialism:  the  socialist  doctrine  espoused  by  Georges  Sorel  who  held  that  violent  action   was  the  only  way  to  achieve  the  goals  of  socialism.     Conservatism:  an  ideology  based  on  tradition  and  social  stability  that  favoured  the  maintenance  of   established  institutions,  organized  religion,  and  obedience  to  authority  and  resisted  change,  especially   abrupt  change.       BOURGEOISIS..                                                           Chapter  20:  The  Americas  and  Society  and  Culture  in  the  West     Caudillos:  strong  leaders  in  19  century  Latin  America,  who  were  usually  supported  by  the  landed  elites   and  ruled  chiefly  by  military  force,  though  some  were  popular;  they  included  both  m odernizers  and   destructive  dictators.       Mass  society:  a  society  in  which  the  concerns  of  the  majority   –  the  lower  classes  –  play  prominent  role;   characterized  by  extension  of  voti ng  rights,  an  improved  standard  of  living  for  the  lower  classes,  and  mass   education     Nation-­‐states:  a  form  of  political  organization  in  which  a  relatively  homogeneous  people  inhabits  a   sovereign  state,  as  opposed  to  a  state  containing  people  of  several  nationalities.     Suffragists:  those  who  advocate  the  extension  of  the  right  to  vo te  (suffrage)  especially  to  women     Mass  education:  a  state-­‐run  educational  system,  usually  free  and  compulsory,  that  aims  to  ensure  that  all   children  in  society  have  at  least  a  basic  education.     Mass  leisure:  forms  of  leisure  that  appeal  to  large  numbers  o f  people  in  a  society  including  the  working   th classes;  emerged  at  the  end  of  the  19  century  to  provide  workers  with  amusements  after  work  and  on   weekends;  used  during  the  20  century  by  totalitarian  states  to  control  their  populations.                                                                 Chapter  21:  The  High  Tide  of  Imperialism     Imperialism:  the  policy  of  extending  one  nation’s  power  either  by  conquest  or  by  establishing  direct  or   indirect  economic  or  cultural  authority  over  another.  Generally  driven  by  economic  self -­‐interest,  it  can   also  be  motivated  by  a  sincere  (if  often  misguided)  sense  of  moral  obligation     Indirect  Rule:  a  colonial  policy  of  foreign  rule  in  cooperation  with  local  political  elites.  Though   implemented  in  much  of  India  and  Malaya  and  in  parts  of  Africa,  it  was  not  feasible  where  resistance  was   strong.     Direct  Rule:  a  concept  devised  by  European  colonial  governments  to  rule  their  colonial  subjects  without   the  participation  of  local  authorities.  It  was  most  often  applied  in  colonial  societies  in  Africa.     Assimilation:  the  concept,  originating  in  France,  that  the  colonial  peoples  should  be  assimilated   (adapted)  into  the  parent  French  culture.     Association:  the  concept,  developed  by  French  colonial  officials,  that  the  colonial  peoples  should  be   permitted  to  retain  their  pre-­‐colonial  cultural  traditions.       Raj:  the  British  colonial  regime  in  India.     th Informal  Empire:  the  growing  presence  of  Europeans  in  Africa  during  the  first  decades  of  the  19   century.  During  this  period,  most  African  states  were  nonetheless  still  a ble  to  maintain  their   independence.     Pasha:  an  administrative  official  of  the  Ottoman  Empire,  responsible  for  collecting  taxes  and  maintaining   order  in  the  provinces;  later,  some  became  hereditary  rulers.     High  colonialism:  the  more  formal  phase  of  European  colonial  policy  in  Africa  after  WW1  when  the   colonial  administrative  network  was  extended  to  outlying  areas  and  more  emphasis  was  placed  on   improving  social  services  and  fostering  economic  development,  especially  the  exploitation  of  natural   resources,  to  enable  the  colonies  to  achieve  self -­‐sufficiency.     Sepoys:  native  troops  hired  by  the  land  and  obliged  to  provide  labor  services  and  pay  various  rents  and   fees  to  the  lord;  considered  unfree  but  not  a  slave  because  serfs  could  not  be  bought  and  sold.                                     Chapter  22:  Shadows  over  the  Pacific:  East  Asia  Under  Challenge     Self-­‐strengthening:  a  late  19  century  Chinese  policy,  by  which  Western  technology  would  be  adopted   while  Confucian  principles  and  institutions  were  maintained  intact.     Open  Door  Notes:  a  series  of  letters  sent  in  1899  by  U.S  Secretary  of  State  John  Hay  to  Great  Britain,   France,  Germany,  Italy,  Japan  and  Russia,  calling  for  equal  economic  access  to  the  China  market  for  all   states  and  for  the  maintenance  of  the  territorial  and  admi nistrative  integrity  of  the  Chinese  Empire.     Three  people’s  principles:  the  three  principles  on  which  the  program  of  Sun  Yat -­‐sen’s  Revolutionary   Alliance  (Tongmenghui)  was  based:  nationalism  (meaning  prim
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