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Village to Empire 1-31.docx

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York University
HUMA 2105
Sarah Blake

Who are the Romans and how do we know? Chapter 1: Early Italy ITALY AND THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD:  North the Alps divide Italy from the rest of Europe  South the valley of Po contains agricultural land  Centers of population and civilization rose in coastal regions  Narrow plains  West coast more favourable  Fertile lands, well watered, capable of sustaining large populations, harbour access to sea and 4 rivers  Travel not limited by geographical constraints  Before Rome dominated the peninsula, seas born connects only on the Adriatic  Island of Sicily divided the Mediterranean Sea in two, often traffic passed by THE EVIDENCE: ITAL BEFORE THE CITY:  Land of villages, small settlements with a few huts, and less than 100 habitants  Simple technology  Pottery  Potter’s wheel, and kilns came after cities  Tools made from wood, bone, stone  No signs of marked distinctions in wealth  Around 2000 BCE, copper tools and ornaments appear  1800-1600, 1600-1300, (Early & Middle Bronze Age) bronze became used  Metalworking for specialists – indication that experts travelled villages for markets  Influences from outside civilizations  Mycenaean’s search for metals encouraged movement of craftsmen and manufactured objects  Mycenaean influence along some coasts of southern Italy and Sicily  Imitating aspects with presence of native rulers th th  13 -early 12 C., settlements began to grow, villages placed strategically THE IRON AGE IN ETRURIA, LATIUM, AND CAMPANIA:  9 C. developments to the appearance of cities influential in history th th  9 – last third of 8 C (Iron Age)  Centuries after the introduction of iron, wide range of tools continued to be made of aforementioned objects  Etruria, Latium, Campania, rise of inter-related group of cultures that would develop into major powers  Etruria – Villanovan – from state of modern Bologna  Increased settlements, on easily defendable plateaus, reinforced by geographical features  Internal organization of these new, larger, settlements was still simple with huts  Primary economic activities – farming, raising livestock  Proto-urban  Graves at Gabii (in Latium) arranged by rite, age, gender  Male graves - miniaturized weapons (shows men had a distinctive position in society)  Women graves – ornaments of glass, amber, bronze objects Greeks and Phoenicians in the Central Mediterranean:  Outside contacts affected pace and nature of change  1000 BCE, leaders of some Phoenician cities send out settlers and trading expeditions  Established new cities, Carthage (Cathago) – most powerful of them  Mycenaean collapse in 12 C. saw contact decline th  Trade and population revived in 9 C.  Greek settlements on island of Pithecusa, then mainland THE RISE OF CITIES:  Middle of 8 C, and next three, Etruria, Latium, Campania witnessed political, social, cultural innovations resulting in the first city-states  City-states – dominant form of organization in these, and Greek Regions of Sicily & Italy  Urban core, special areas for elite, communal ends, cemeteries, shrines, hamlets, farmsteads  Scale varied  Beginning had an army around 100, by the end of the 6 C had populations of several tens of thousands  Aristocratic families at first, 7 & 6 C. kings reigned in some th  Early 5 C. certain cities possessed formal offices, held elections for 1 year terms  Leaders of powerful communities constructed larger, elaborate buildings. And set aside formal spaces for the population to gather for occasions important to the city  Institutions regulating the community as a whole appeared, overshadowed individual families, and their leaders  Central Italy – scholars divided age of city-state into broad phases  Orientalizing Period (c. 725-580) – appearance in tombs, and deposits, of goods imported from the Orient`(Greece, Syria, Egypt, or imitations made locally)  Archaic Period (c. 580-480) Beginning of Writing:  8 C. writing came to Italy  Greek language and script had a long life and influence in Italy  By 700 texts in one or another language of Italy appear, written in texts derived from Greek th  Earliest Etruscan date to beginning of 7 C.  Few documents in Latin th th  8 – 5 C. surviving texts are short, difficult to interpret, hard to date, not informative  Languages written in not understood, written on bronze, pottery, stone  No evidence survives for bureaucratic use of writing  Although, writing was associated with elites of cities, and accompany their activities Appearance of an Elite: th  Towards the end of 8 C. families in coastal regions of Etruria, Latium, Campania, began to demonstrate possessed wealth, status power o f a greater scale then others in their communities  Distinguish themselves with personal ornaments, weapons, other marks of status (many had origins in Greece Near East)  Tombs are a sign of this evidence  Many constructed for future burial of family  Placed near settlements as status symbols  Contained pottery, metal objects  Variation of funeral rites, with the above practice transgressing different languages  Over time the local elites followed their own course of development  Evidence from tombs shows objects placing a prominent role in aristocratic self-image and objects used in ceremonies  Chariot-status, highly decorative  Lifestyle remains obscure, comparison of Greek influence might clarify  Skill & leadership played a role  Males saw themselves as heroes – explains popularity in epics  Burials contained weapons of war  Ceremonial drinking was predominant among aristocratic life  In Greece ceremonial drinking bouts (symposia), poetry song, display of wit, conversation held  Elite males created lings and proclaimed distinction from others  Bulk of bronze vessels in Italian elite graves shows this occupied a position in self-definition  In Italy women participated as well  Extravagance  Burial chambers emulated living rooms, had frescos Cities and Monumental Architecture: th th  The 9 , and 8 C. collection of huts with no traces of planning  Fr
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