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HUMA 2105 (6)


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York University
HUMA 2105
Sarah Blake

The Twelve Caesars Suetonius Divius Augustus: Pages 43-103  Velitraean records show that offerings to mars were changed after one Octavius offered only half-burned intestines, rushing off to defend Velitrae  King Tarquinius Priscus admitted the Ocatvii, to the Roman Senate o Servius Tullius awarded them patrician privileges, later reverted to plebeian, until Divus Julius  Augustus’s grandfather lived to an advanced age, from income  Augustus’s great-grandfather fought as a military tribune in the second Punic War  Gaius Rufus, first Octavius elected to office by popular vote  Lineage split into two branches, decedents of Gnaeus and Gaus (remained qeuites until entry into the Senate of Augustus’ father  These records not derived from Augustus’ own memoirs  Mark Antony claimed this was false; Augustus’ great-grandfather had only been a freeman, rope maker, while his grandfather, a money-changer  Gaius Octavius’ father was rich enough to achieve office without engaging in bribes  Governed Macedonia courageously and justly  Letters from Cicero survive, making Octavius a model in all diplomatic dealings with allies  Gaius died suddenly on return to Rome, preventing candidacy for consulship  3 children: Ocatvia the elder, Octavia the young, and Augustus  The latter two were children of Julius Caesar’s sister, Julia  The former was related to Pompey the Great  Augustus’s lineage is insulted and criticized by Cassius Parmensis and Mark Antony  Augustus was born before sunrise on September 23 , while Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Antonius were consuls  A shrine to him was built soon after his death, marking the spot  Laetorius begged for pardon by occupying this location, and claiming to be a temple warden  A country mansion near Velitrae, once belonging to Augustus’ grandfather is believed as Augustus’ birth place  Religious scruples forbid any from entering without necessity and after purification, supernatural powers protect it  As a child was called Thurinus [the Thurian]  A statue confirms allegedly has an inscription of this, and was given the emperor took it as a household god  Sanctuaries and all placed consecrated by the augurs are known as august, name Augustus perhaps derived from this  Lost father at 4, delivered eulogy for his grandmother Julia at 12, at 16 was awarded military decorations by Caesar  When Caesar was assassinated, he returned to Rome, claiming inheritance, commanding army and governing the commonwealth  Ruled with Antony, and Lepidus and then ultimately by himself for 44 years  Achievements described in topical arrangement, rather than chronological order  Motivated to avenge Caesar and keep decrees in force  Announced candidature for tribune of plebs, was a patrician, not yet a senator  Mark Antony opposed this heavily  Mark Antony was views negatively for besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina  Engaged assassins to murder Antony, and when discovered, spent money on raising a force of veterans to protect himself and the commonwealth  Senate awarded praetorian rank  Given command of army and joined two new consuls, in relief of Decimus  Ran from the first battle, in the second displayed courage as a soldier and commanding skill  Hirtius fell in battle, Pansa succumbed to a wound, suspiciously – two consuls  Augustus is rumoured to have perpetrated these two actions, to assume sole control over their victories armies, afters Antony’s defeat  Deserted Optimates, imposed a fine on the people of Nursia and exiled them from their own city  Displayed cruelty to fallen enemies  Prisoners saluted Antony as imperator, abused Augustus’ name  Antony undertook the responsibilities of pacifying the eastern provinces  Augustus led the veterans back to Italy and settled them on municipals land, failed  Revolt from Lucius Antonius (brother of Mark Antony)  Augustus forced to take refuge in Perusia and starved into surrender  Augustus also died to a rumour of an executed soldier watching the games  A party of gladiators nearly cut off his retreat while making a sacrifice near the walls of Perusia  Stated “You just die” to all prisoners, and those who sued for pardon  The Sicilian War, was interrupted by two storms that destroyed his ships, forcing him to rebuild  Created the Julian harbour at Baiae  Fell asleep on the eve of the battle, and had to be awakened by friends  Taunted by Antony for this  Was almost killed along the road to Rhegium by way of Locri – Pompeians  And by an slave of Aemilius Paulus` father  Augustus deprived Lepidus of legions for demanding highest place in government  Broke friendship with Antony, claiming not a Roman citizen  Allowed his relatives and friends to join him under safe conduct  Excused Bononia, a city traditionally dependent on the Antonii, form joining Italy, by taking an oath of support  Pacified mutineers at Brundisisum, besieged Alexandria  Wanted Cleopatra`s corpse as an ornament  Allowed honourable burial together  Sent cavalry in pursuit of Caesarion (supposed son of Caesar) and killed him  Raised Antony and Cleopatra`s children  Egypt became a province of Rome, irrigation canals of the Nile were cleaned out  Founded city of Nicoplis  Suppressed sporadic riots and revolts, and conspiracy leaders  Almost assassinated by an someone who snuck near his bedroom with a hunting knife  Commanded armies in foreign wars twice: Dalmatae – teens, Cantabri – after Antony  Injured in both  Never wantonly invaded any country, felt no t
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