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Chapter 8

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York University
Information Technology
ITEC 1010
Paul Kashiyama

Chapter 8 system development Information Systems Planning andAligning Corporate and IS Goals • information systems planning: Translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives. • Aligning organizational goals and IS goals is critical for any successful systems development effort The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle • systems investigation: The systems development phase during which problems and opportunities are identified and considered in light of the goals of the business. • systems analysis: The systems development phase that attempts to answer the question “What must the information system do to solve the problem?” • systems design: The systems development phase that defines how the information system will do what it must do to obtain the problem solution. • systems implementation: The systems development phase involving the creation or acquisition of various system components detailed in the systems design, assembling them, and placing the new or modified system into operation. • systems maintenance and review The systems development phase that ensures the system operates as intended and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs. Prototyping • An iterative approach ◦ systems development process in which, at each iteration, requirements and alternative solutions to a problem are identified and analyzed, new solutions are designed, and a portion of the system is implemented. RapidApplication Development,Agile Development, and Other Systems DevelopmentApproaches • rapid application development (RAD)Asystems development approach that employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development. • Other approaches to rapid development ◦ agile development: face to face meeting of all participants ◦ extreme programming (xp): pairs of programmers for rapid program development with fewer errors Outsourcing and On-Demand Computing • reasons for using outsourcing and on-demand computing ◦ reduce costs ◦ obtain state of the art technology ◦ eliminating staffing and personnel problems ◦ increasing technological flexibility FACTORSAFFECTING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT SUCCESS • successful systems development ◦ delivers a system that meets user and organizational needs on time and within budget • critical for most systems development projects ◦ getting users and stakeholders involved Degree of Change • Continuous Improvement versus Reengineering ◦ low degree of change have a high degree of success ◦ reengineering projects involving fundamental changes tend to have a high degree of risk but also a high potential for benefits • managing change ◦ essential to recognize and deal with existing or potential problems Use of Project Management Tools • project schedule:Adetailed description of what is to be done. • project milestone:Acritical date for the completion of a major part of the project. • project deadline: The date the entire project is to be completed and operational. • critical path:Activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project. • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)Aformalized approach for developing a project schedule. • Gantt chart:Agraphical tool used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects. Object-Oriented Systems Development • combines logic of SDLC with power of object-oriented modeling and programming • OOSD tasks ◦ identifying potential problems and opportunities that would be appropriate for OO approach ◦ Defining what kind of system users require ◦ designing the system ◦ programming or modifying modules ◦ evaluation by users ◦ periodic review and modification SYSTEMS INVESTIGATION • What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve? • What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide? • What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will improve an existing system or are required in a new system? • What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)? • What are the associated risks? Initiating Systems Investigation • The systems request form is a document that is filled out by someone who wants the IS department to initiate systems investigation. This form typically includes the following information: ◦ Problems in or opportunities for the system ◦ Objectives of systems investigation ◦ Overview of the proposed system ◦ Expected costs and benefits of the proposed system FeasibilityAnalysis • feasibility analysis ◦ Assessment of the technical, economic, legal, operational, and schedule feasibility of a project. • technical feasibility ◦ Assessment of whether the hardware, software, and other system components can be acquired or developed to solve the problem. • economic feasibility ◦ The determination of whether the project makes financial sense and whether predicted benefits offset the cost and time needed to obtain them. • legal feasibility ◦ The determination of whether laws or regulations may prevent or limit a systems development project. • operational feasibility ◦ The measure of whether the project can be put into action or operation. • schedule feasibility ◦ The determination of whether the project can be completed in a reasonable amount of time. Object-Oriented Systems Investigation • The object-oriented approach can be used during all phases of systems development, from investigation to maintenance and review ◦ use case diagram is part of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) that is used in object-oriented systems development. The Systems Investigation Report • Asummary of the results of the systems investigation and the process of feasibility analysis and recommendation of a course of action.
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