Chapter 8 system development
Information Systems Planning andAligning Corporate and IS Goals
• information systems planning: Translating strategic and organizational goals into systems
• Aligning organizational goals and IS goals is critical for any successful systems
The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle
• systems investigation: The systems development phase during which problems and
opportunities are identified and considered in light of the goals of the business.
• systems analysis: The systems development phase that attempts to answer the question
“What must the information system do to solve the problem?”
• systems design: The systems development phase that defines how the information system
will do what it must do to obtain the problem solution.
• systems implementation: The systems development phase involving the creation or
acquisition of various system components detailed in the systems design, assembling them,
and placing the new or modified system into operation.
• systems maintenance and review The systems development phase that ensures the system
operates as intended and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business
• An iterative approach
◦ systems development process in which, at each iteration, requirements and alternative
solutions to a problem are identified and analyzed, new solutions are designed, and a
portion of the system is implemented.
RapidApplication Development,Agile Development, and Other Systems DevelopmentApproaches
• rapid application development (RAD)Asystems development approach that employs tools,
techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development.
• Other approaches to rapid development
◦ agile development: face to face meeting of all participants
◦ extreme programming (xp): pairs of programmers for rapid program development with
Outsourcing and On-Demand Computing
• reasons for using outsourcing and on-demand computing
◦ reduce costs
◦ obtain state of the art technology
◦ eliminating staffing and personnel problems
◦ increasing technological flexibility
FACTORSAFFECTING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT SUCCESS
• successful systems development
◦ delivers a system that meets user and organizational needs on time and within budget
• critical for most systems development projects
◦ getting users and stakeholders involved
Degree of Change
• Continuous Improvement versus Reengineering ◦ low degree of change have a high degree of success
◦ reengineering projects involving fundamental changes tend to have a high degree of risk
but also a high potential for benefits
• managing change
◦ essential to recognize and deal with existing or potential problems
Use of Project Management Tools
• project schedule:Adetailed description of what is to be done.
• project milestone:Acritical date for the completion of a major part of the project.
• project deadline: The date the entire project is to be completed and operational.
• critical path:Activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project.
• Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)Aformalized approach for developing a
• Gantt chart:Agraphical tool used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects.
Object-Oriented Systems Development
• combines logic of SDLC with power of object-oriented modeling and programming
• OOSD tasks
◦ identifying potential problems and opportunities that would be appropriate for OO
◦ Defining what kind of system users require
◦ designing the system
◦ programming or modifying modules
◦ evaluation by users
◦ periodic review and modification
• What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve?
• What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide?
• What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will
improve an existing system or are required in a new system?
• What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)?
• What are the associated risks?
Initiating Systems Investigation
• The systems request form is a document that is filled out by someone who wants the IS
department to initiate systems investigation. This form typically includes the following
◦ Problems in or opportunities for the system
◦ Objectives of systems investigation
◦ Overview of the proposed system
◦ Expected costs and benefits of the proposed system
• feasibility analysis
◦ Assessment of the technical, economic, legal, operational, and schedule feasibility of a
• technical feasibility
◦ Assessment of whether the hardware, software, and other system components can be
acquired or developed to solve the problem. • economic feasibility
◦ The determination of whether the project makes financial sense and whether predicted
benefits offset the cost and time needed to obtain them.
• legal feasibility
◦ The determination of whether laws or regulations may prevent or limit a systems
• operational feasibility
◦ The measure of whether the project can be put into action or operation.
• schedule feasibility
◦ The determination of whether the project can be completed in a reasonable amount of
Object-Oriented Systems Investigation
• The object-oriented approach can be used during all phases of systems development, from
investigation to maintenance and review
◦ use case diagram is part of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) that is used in
object-oriented systems development.
The Systems Investigation Report
• Asummary of the results of the systems investigation and the process of feasibility analysis
and recommendation of a course of action.