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Chapter 9

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York University
Information Technology
ITEC 1010
Paul Kashiyama

Chapter 9: The Personal and Social Impact of Computers COMPUTER WASTEAND MISTAKES • computer waste ◦ inappropriate use of computer technology and resources • computer-related mistakes ◦ errors, failures, and other computer problems that make computer output incorrect or not useful • image-based spam ◦ new tactic spammers use to circumvent spam-filtering software • spam filter ◦ software that attempts to block unwanted e-mail ◦ some might require first-time e-mailers to be verified before their e-mails are accepted computer-related mistakes • common causes ◦ unclear expectations and a lack of feedback ◦ program development that contains errors ◦ incorrect data entry by data-entry clerk preventing waste and mistakes • establish policies and procedures re- garding efficient acquisition, use, and disposal of systems and devices • types of computer mistakes ◦ Data-entry or data-capture errors ◦ Errors in computer programs ◦ Errors in handling files, including formatting a disk by mistake, copying an old file over a newer one, and deleting a file by mistake ◦ Mishandling of computer outpu ◦ Inadequate planning for and control of equipment malfunctions ◦ Inadequate planning for and control of environmental difficulties (such as electrical and humidity problems) ◦ installing computing capacity inadequate for the level of activity ◦ Failure to provide access to the most current information by not adding new Web links and not deleting old links Implementing Policies and Procedures • Changes to critical tables, HTML, and URLs should be tightly controlled, with all changes documented and authorized by responsible owners. • Auser manual should be available covering operating procedures and documenting the management and control of the application. • Each system report should indicate its general content in its title and specify the time period covered. • The system should have controls to prevent invalid and unreasonable data entry. Monitoring Policies and Procedures • monitor routine practices and take corrective action if necessary • day-to-day activities, organizations can make adjustments or develop new procedures Reviewing Policies and Procedures • ask questions ◦ Do current policies cover existing practices adequately? Were any problems or opportunities uncovered during monitoring? ◦ Does the organization plan any new activities in the future? If so, does it need new policies or procedures addressing who will handle them and what must be done? ◦ Are contingencies and disasters covered? Computer crime • undelivered merchandise or nonpayment • identity theft • credit card fraud • auction fraud THE COMPUTERASATOOLTO COMMIT CRIME • social engineering ◦ Using social skills to get computer users to provide information that allows a hacker to access an information system or its data. • Dumpster diving ◦ Going through the trash cans of an organization to find secret or confidential information, including information needed to access an information system or its data. Cyberterrorism • Homeland Security Department’s InformationAnalysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate to serve as a focal point for threat assessment, warning, investigation, and response for threats or attacks against the country’s critical infrastructure • cyberterrorist ◦ intimidates or coerces a government or organization to advance his political or social objectives Identity Theft • imposter obtains key pieces of personal identification information, such as Social Security or driver’s license numbers, to impersonate someone else ◦ to obtain credit, merchandise, and/or services in the name of the victim ◦ to have false credentials Internet Gambling • revenues generated by Internet gambling represent a major untapped source of in- come for the state and federal governments • people of all income levels played state lottery games, those people with an annual income of less than $10,000 spent nearly three times as much THE COMPUTERASATOOLTO FIGHT CRIME • Recovery of Stolen Property ◦ leads online web-based service system used by law enforcement or recover stolen property • monitoring Sex Offenders ◦ Offender Watch is a Web-based system used to track registered sex offenders ◦ GPS tracking devices and special software are also used to monitor the movement of registered sex offenders • Use of Geographic Information Systems ◦ enables law enforcement agencies to gain a quick overview of crime risk at a gvien address or in a given locate THE COMPUTERAS THE OBJECT OF CRIME • illegal access and use • data alteration and destruction • information and equipment theft • software and Internet piracy • computer-related scams • international computer crime. IllegalAccess and Use • hacker ◦ Aperson who e
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