ITEC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Unified Modeling Language, Systems Development Life Cycle, Rapid Application Development
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Chapter 8 system development
Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals
•information systems planning: Translating strategic and organizational goals into systems
•Aligning organizational goals and IS goals is critical for any successful systems
The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle
•systems investigation: The systems development phase during which problems and
opportunities are identified and considered in light of the goals of the business.
•systems analysis: The systems development phase that attempts to answer the question
“What must the information system do to solve the problem?”
•systems design: The systems development phase that defines how the information system
will do what it must do to obtain the problem solution.
•systems implementation: The systems development phase involving the creation or
acquisition of various system components detailed in the systems design, assembling them,
and placing the new or modified system into operation.
•systems maintenance and review The systems development phase that ensures the system
operates as intended and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business
•An iterative approach
◦systems development process in which, at each iteration, requirements and alternative
solutions to a problem are identified and analyzed, new solutions are designed, and a
portion of the system is implemented.
Rapid Application Development, Agile Development, and Other Systems Development Approaches
•rapid application development (RAD) A systems development approach that employs tools,
techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development.
•Other approaches to rapid development
◦agile development: face to face meeting of all participants
◦extreme programming (xp): pairs of programmers for rapid program development with
Outsourcing and On-Demand Computing
•reasons for using outsourcing and on-demand computing
◦obtain state of the art technology
◦eliminating staffing and personnel problems
◦increasing technological flexibility
FACTORS AFFECTING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT SUCCESS
•successful systems development
◦delivers a system that meets user and organizational needs on time and within budget
•critical for most systems development projects
◦getting users and stakeholders involved
Degree of Change
•Continuous Improvement versus Reengineering
◦low degree of change have a high degree of success
◦reengineering projects involving fundamental changes tend to have a high degree of risk
but also a high potential for benefits
◦essential to recognize and deal with existing or potential problems
Use of Project Management Tools
•project schedule: A detailed description of what is to be done.
•project milestone: A critical date for the completion of a major part of the project.
•project deadline: The date the entire project is to be completed and operational.
•critical path: Activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project.
•Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) A formalized approach for developing a
•Gantt chart: A graphical tool used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects.
Object-Oriented Systems Development
•combines logic of SDLC with power of object-oriented modeling and programming
◦identifying potential problems and opportunities that would be appropriate for OO
◦Defining what kind of system users require
◦designing the system
◦programming or modifying modules
◦evaluation by users
◦periodic review and modification
•What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve?
•What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide?
•What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will
improve an existing system or are required in a new system?
•What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)?
•What are the associated risks?
Initiating Systems Investigation
•The systems request form is a document that is filled out by someone who wants the IS
department to initiate systems investigation. This form typically includes the following
◦Problems in or opportunities for the system
◦Objectives of systems investigation
◦Overview of the proposed system
◦Expected costs and benefits of the proposed system
◦Assessment of the technical, economic, legal, operational, and schedule feasibility of a
◦Assessment of whether the hardware, software, and other system components can be
acquired or developed to solve the problem.
Information systems planning and aligning corporate and is goals information systems planning: translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives: aligning organizational goals and is goals is critical for any successful systems development effort. Prototyping: an iterative approach, systems development process in which, at each iteration, requirements and alternative solutions to a problem are identified and analyzed, new solutions are designed, and a portion of the system is implemented. Outsourcing and on-demand computing reasons for using outsourcing and on-demand computing: reduce costs, obtain state of the art technology, eliminating staffing and personnel problems, increasing technological flexibility. Factors affecting systems development success successful systems development: delivers a system that meets user and organizational needs on time and within budget critical for most systems development projects, getting users and stakeholders involved. Program evaluation and review technique (pert) a formalized approach for developing a project schedule: gantt chart: a graphical tool used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects.