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Chapter

KINE 2031 Chapter Notes -Greater Trochanter, Radial Sulcus, Iliocostalis


Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 2031
Professor
Neil Smith

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NOTE: Words in brackets are what is written in the manual
AXIAL SKELETON
Frontal Bone: (Forehead) Cranial bone that surrounds and protects the brain from the front
Parietal bones: Cranial bones that cover much of the top and sides of the brain (behind frontal left
and right suture between parietal bones and frontal)
Temporal Bones: Related to the temple
- Mastoid Process: A large rounded protrusion located lateral to the styloid process and posterior
to the eternal acoustic meatus; serves as an attachment point for several of the muscles that
move the neck
- Mastoid Process
- Mandibular Fossa head of mandible
- Jugular Foramen internal jugular vein, cranial nerves 9,10,11
- Carotid Canal internal carotid artery
Occipital Bone: Concerning the back of the head. The occipital bone is the cranial bone that surrounds
and protects that back part of the brain
- Foramen magnum: A large hole located along interior surface of the bone; forms a passageway
for the spinal cord to exit the skull. (vertebral artery, spinal cord)
- Occipital Condyle: Prominent, rounded elevation located to the side of the foramen magnum;
articulates with the superior articular facet of the atlas (1st) vertebra
- External Occipital Protuberance: A small elevation in the middle of the superior nuchal line;
serves as an attachment point for the trapezius muscle (ligamentum nuchae)
Sphenoid Bone: Is a large bone located in the middle of the skull between the frontal and temporal
bones. It primary consists of a centrally positioned body and two sets of greater and lesser wings
that extend laterally to the sides of the skull. As one of the cranial bones, it surrounds and protects
the brain (looks like a butterfly)
- Sella turcica: a combination of structures along the superior surface of the sphenoid body that
form the protective, bony housing around the hypophysis or pituitary gland; together these
structures look like a sadldle (pituitary gland)
Ethmoid bone: Irregular shaped cranial bone found at the top of the nasal cavity; bony projections from
the ethmoid extend into the nasal cavity, orbits and cranium (perpendicular plate... nasal
septum)
FACIAL
Mandible:

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Head: (see mandibular fossa)
- Coranoid Process: Sharply angled anteriorextension of the ramus
- Ramus: vertical portion of the bone
- Body: Horseshoe shaped portion of the bone
- Alveolar Process (teeth): Contains sockets (alveoli) for the teeth
- Angle: Region of bone where the ramus and body join
Maxilla:
- Alveolar Process: Inferior extension that contains the sockets (alveoli) for the teeth)
- Zygomatic: Is the facial bone that forms the cheekbone
- Nasal: small bones that form the bridge of the nose
- Palatine: Two L-shaped palatines are the facial bones that form the posterior floor of the nasal
cavity (hard palate makes up part of the roof of your mouth)
- Vomer: a thin, plow-shaped bone; joins with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone to
form the bony septum that divides the nasal cavity into right and left halves (nasal spetum)
- Lacrimal: Depression at the junction of the lacrimal and maxilla bones that holds that lacrimal
sac; tears formed by the sac drain through a duct into the nasal cavity (groove for lacrimal sac)
SUTURES:
Lateral view:
- Coronal: junction between frontal and parietal bones
- Lambdoidal: junction between the parietal bones and occipital bone (outlines occipital)
- Squamosal: junction between the parietal and temporal bones (outlines temporal)
- Sagittal: junction between the two parietal bones
Vertebral Column:
Typical Vertebra:
- Body: cylindrical mass at the anterior base of the vertebral (neutral) arch that is designed to
withstand vertical compression. This is the region of bone where adjacent vertebrae stack on
top of another
- Pedicle: (from body to transverse process)
- Transverse Process: prominent lateral projections; serves at an attachment point for muscles
that control neck movement.
- Lamina: Flattened portion of the vertebral (neutral) arch (from transverse process to spinous
process)
- Spinous Process: Narrow posterior projection from the junction of the laminae (points towards
the back)
- Vertabral Foramen (spinal cord): large opening in the center of the bone; passageway for the
spinal cord
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- Superior articulating surface: smooth surfaces for articulation with the inferior articular surface
on the vertebra above
- Inferior articular surface: smooth surfaces for articulation with the superior articular surface on
the vertebra below
- (Intervertebral foramina): spinal nerve to exit
Cervical Vertebrae (7) info in manual is good
Dens or Odontoid process: prominent superior projection from the body region; serves a stable point
around which the atlas (1st) rotates
Thoracic vertebrae (12):
- Demifacets: small depression
Sacrum:
- Sacral Canal: a channel that runs through the interior of the sacrum; forms a passageway for
the spinal cord
- Median Crest: a small ridge composed of the fused spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae
- Sacral hiatus: a triangular gap in the bone located at the inferior tip of the median sacral crest;
forms an inferior opening through which the inferior spinal nerves exits
Ribs:
- Head: the medioposterior end of the bone; area of articulation with the facets and demifacets
of the thoracic vertebrae (articulates with vertebrae)
- Angle: the area of shaft with the greatest curvature
- Tubercle: small elevation found posterior and lateral to the head; area of articulation with the
transverse process of the vertebra
Sternum:
- Manubrium: the superior bone (the top part)
- Body: (middle portion)
- Xiphoid process: the inferior bone (the bottom part)
Clavicle:
- Sternal end: the triangular shaped, medial surface that articulates with the sternum. Use this
marking as a landmark to identify the medial side of this bone
- Acromial end: the flattened, lateral surface that articulates with the acromion of the scapula.
Use this marking as a landmark to identify the lateral side of this bone
Scapula:
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