All science boils down to observation observation consists of measurement, any observation can be improved by measurement final result of measurement = numerical data. Most observations and measurements are expressed in numerical form. Making decisions and judgments about numbers = part of the scientific procedure, part of statistics. Statistics = methodology for extracting information and meaning from numbers and making decisions about them intermediary between what is observed and what can be concluded about how natural events operate. Statistics comes to life when a new finding is reported, statistical reasoning comes into play. Play a central role in attaching meaning to numbers, makes sense of data can be easily led astray/influenced by companies who give out false statistical arguments. Need a grasp of statistics/ statistical background. Description = techniques for organizing, summarizing, extracting information from numerical data, basic to understanding data, first stage of analysis.