KINE3020 questions readings 1-25.docx

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Published on 6 Feb 2013
Course
Professor
3020 Skilled Performance & Motor Learning
Questions for Topic 1 Reading
1. What is the definition of skill?
Skill consists in the ability to bring about some end result with maximum certainty and
minimum outlay of energy, or of time and energy.
2. (a) Performing skills implies some desired ______environmental____________ goal
(b) Give an example of an environmental goal:
Holding a handstand in gymnastics or completing a forward pass in football
3. What are 4 important features of the definition of skill?
First, performing skills implies some desired environmental goal, such as holding a
handstand in gymnastics or completing a forward pass in football. Skills are usually thought
of as different from movements, which do not necessarily have any particular environmental
goal, such as idly wiggling my little finger. Of course, skills consist of movements because
the performer could not achieve an environmental goal without making at least one
movement.
Second, to be skilled implies meeting this performance goal, this "end result," with
maximum certainty. For example, last month while playing darts I made a bull's-eye. But this
by itself does not ensure that I am a skilled darts player, because I have not demonstrated that
I can achieve this result with any certainty. Such an outcome was the result of one lucky
throw in the midst of hundreds of others that were not so lucky. I need to demonstrate that I
can produce the skill reliably, on demand, without luck playing a very large role. This is why
people so greatly value the champion athlete who, with but one chance and only seconds
remaining at the end of a game, makes the goal that allows the team to win.
Third, a major feature in many skills is the minimization, and thus conservation, of the
energy required for performance. For some skills this is clearly not the goal, such as in the
shot put, where the only goal is to throw the maximum distance. But for many other skills the
minimization of energy expenditure is critical, allowing the marathon runner to hold an
efficient pace or allowing the wrestler to save strength for the last few minutes of the match.
This minimum-energy notion applies to organizing the action not only so the physiological
energy costs are lower but also so the psychological, or mental, energy required is reduced.
Many skills have been learned so well that the performers hardly have to pay attention to
them, freeing their cognitive processes for other features of the activity, such as strategy in
basketball or expressiveness in dance. A major contributor to the efficiency of skilled
performance is practice, with learning and experience leading to the relatively effortless
performances so admired in highly skilled people.
Finally, another feature of many skills is for highly proficient performers to achieve their
goals in minimum time. Many sports skills have this as the only competition goal, such as a
swimming race. Other skills are more effective if done quickly, such as a boxing jab or a
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basketball pass. Minimizing time can interact with the other skill features mentioned,
however. Speeding up performance often results in sloppy movements that have less
certainty in terms of achieving the environmental goal. Also, increased speed generates
movements for which the energy costs are sometimes higher. Thus, understanding skills
involves optimizing and balancing several skill aspects that are important to different extents
in different settings.
In sum, skills generally involve achieving some well-defined environmental goal by
• maximizing the achievement certainty,
• minimizing the physical and mental energy costs of performance, and
• minimizing the time used.
4. The minimum-energy notion is deemed to reduce/lower which types of energy‘s?
This minimum-energy notion applies to organizing the action not only so the physiological
energy costs are lower but also so the psychological, or mental, energy required is reduced.
Many skills have been learned so well that the performers hardly have to pay attention to
them, freeing their cognitive processes for other features of the activity, such as strategy in
basketball or expressiveness in dance.
5. What is the major contributor to the efficiency of a skilled performance?
A major contributor to the efficiency of skilled performance is practice, with learning and
experience leading to the relatively effortless performances so admired in highly skilled
people.
6. What usually is a by-product of speeding up performance?
Results in sloppy movements that have less certainty in terms of achieving the
environmental goal
Generates movements generating higher energy costs
7. What 3 concepts are valuable when wanting to achieve some well-defined
environmental goal?
• maximizing the achievement certainty,
• minimizing the physical and mental energy costs of performance, and
minimizing the time used.
8. What 3 elements are critical to almost any skill?
• Perceiving the relevant environmental features
• Deciding what to do and where and when to do it
• Producing organized muscular activity to generate movements
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9. What do the postural components provide when performing a movement?
support the actions - for instance, the arms of an archer need to be supported by a
stable platform to shoot accurately
10. What component of movement brings the body or limb to the action?
Three major kinds of components involved in the production of many skills:
Postural components provide a "platform" to support the actions
• Body transport components bring the body or limb to the action
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