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KINE 1000 Winter Summary Package

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1000
Hernan Humana

1 KINE 1000 WINTER TERM ARTICLES SUMMARY PACKAGE Copy in Works (Missing the Forde, O.H. (1998) Is imposing Risk Awareness Cultural Imperialism?) Will be done in 2-3 Days “Hit, Crunch, and Burn: Organized Violence and Men’s sport” Burstyn 2 O.J Simpson Trial  It was more publicized than the Bosnia and Oklahoma City bombing combined  O.J represented ‘Black civil rights’ and Mark Fuhrman, the police detective represented ‘white supremacy’ and were both popular in their own groups  Shared one ideology- coercive entitlement- ‘might equals right’, ‘survival of the fittest’, ‘rugged individualism’, and ‘winner takes all.’ This ideology was shared through gender ideals and behavior.  Both men take part in violence whether at work or home and expect respect and reward for being violent.  Saw themselves as “masculine warriors” and defined themselves as masculine and worthy by being violent Mike Tyson  Boxer- was rewarded for being violent and as a result couldn’t differentiate between when violence was appropriate (boxing) and when it wasn’t and to what extent o Quoted to say, “I like to hurt women when I make love to them” and “I like to hear them scream with pain…to see them bleed…it gives me pleasure.” o Bit off Evender Holyfield’s ear when he was about to lose a fight to him.  Violence spills into real life Force Majeure  Physically policed by organized groups of armed and violently instrumental men  Constructed by men, especially in military and parliamentary positions as well as in sports. Expectations  The athlete is a symbolic warrior and is supported when he is violent against his enemies but when he turns against us, there is a breach in contract. It then becomes a violent crime.  The sport itself, the one that causes the violent acts, is not criticized and neither are the values of such games. Sanctioned Violence in Men’s Sport 3  War and sport are both regarded the same- as a fight/ battle where force and violence is needed to be won.  Like sports, war is lawful and allows for violence, which is regarded as heroism.  These acts of violence are regarded as a norm which is why in journals, they are not shown as sadistic rather the pain, violence, and aggression are glorified.  Stephen Brunt “If you see someone whose hurt you’re supposed to help them, not finishes them off. Boxing teaches people the opposite.”  Bob Richardson, a hockey fan and coach, also believes that sports tolerate violence that is punishable in the real world (reality) outside of sports. These violent acts are enough to arrest and punish people.  Athletes suffer many injuries while playing, many are serious and can cause serious physical harm to athletes o 1994 National Football League Player’s Association bulletin reported that over 20% of injuries fell into two most severe injury ratings- out, which gives a player 100% probability of not being able to play the next game, and doubtful, which gives the player 75% chance of not being able to play. o Underwood writes “The issue is not dead bodies but wounded ones, the systematic wasting of men and boys within the boundaries of ‘legal play’.”  Dr. Michael Schwartz (neurosurgeon at Toronto’s Sunnybrook Hospital) studies boxer that were knocked out of the ring and found that ‘a professional fighter can punch a person’s head with about the force that one would suffer if you were not wearing a seatbelt and hit the windshield in a low speed car accident’…it is a ‘controlled murder in a sense.’  1997 studies show that sport-related brain injuries and deaths have increased significantly since 1980s in boxing, football as well as hockey, soccer, baseball, and basketball o Michael Jordan is regarded as a hero and a role model but what the world doesn’t see is his aggression, ego, and pride. Michael Clarkson says that the negative qualities are downplayed because Jordan is a winner. o Phil Jackson (Chicago Bulls coach) says, “Players have been conditioned since childhood that every confrontation is a test of manhood. Sport, Violence against Women, and Fear of the Feminine  From all industries, from entertainment to politics, sports industry is known to be the highest when it comes to abuse and batterers.  Recent studies show that team athletes show a higher percentage to rape as compared to the general student populations on college campuses. 4 o Philadelphia reporter stated that college athletes were reported for sexual assault once every 18 days between 1983-1986 o Football and basketball players representing NCAA-affiliated schools were reported for sexual assault 38% more than average male on campus o Messner said that peer groups encouraged men to treat females as only objects that needed to be won and degraded. This thinking is the core of “the rape culture” o Eugene Kanin’s study of date rape showed that men who are pressured by their peers to engage in sexual activity are more likely to rape female friends.  Allen Sack, former football player, says that “we learn that when a woman in the back of the car seat is saying no, we learn on the contrary, to push it further…athletic boundaries socializes young males to not understand these kind of boundaries”  Charles Barkely was reported to once say, “This is a game that, if you lose, you go home and beat your wife and kids.” Joe Paterno (Penn State football coach) also mentioned, “I’m going home to beat my wife.” o Even the language is one of males where the female is discriminated and the male is shown as dominant and violent.  Alisa DelTufo, founder of Sanctuary for Families-shelter for abused women and kids in NYC- said that men who need to be in control of everything around them batter women to male themselves feel worthy and dominant.  Athletes face little or no punishment when college authorities and alumni intervene because the public will see him as a hero because of what he represents  Gang rapes and rapes target women because of men’s need to feel worthy. It is partly because they hate something within themselves especially a feminine part and so resort to violence  Ted Crosset (UMASS professor of sport management) says that women are degraded and that athletes are not meant to look like a wimp or sissy. To be a man is not to be a woman.  Army drill sergeants and coaches abuse athletes with words like ‘ladies, ‘sissy’ to humiliate them and to get them to work harder.  Hardness defines masculinity, to be called hard is a compliment but to be soft is meant to be humiliating.  Humiliating like this constantly will lead to numbness- an absence of feeling. The absence is what makes violence seem attractive and cause an absence of empathy. 5  When men show emotion, they are condemned and labeled, which leads to shame and anger, which in turn is taken out on others.  Statistically, men are more violent against each other in order to maintain their “manhood” Sport, War Culture, and Masculinity form the 1960s to 1980s  Vietnam War was regarded as rich men from a big country taking over tiny men from a small country. The Vietnamese men were called “fags” by the Americans in the army.  Because U.S lost the war, culture included celebrating exploits and restoring honor of ‘American fighting men’  Men are said to love war because it’s the closest it comes to giving birth. Our culture thinks that war is a test to prove manhood because of the involvement of danger and violence  Our culture shows that women are built for giving birth and that men are made for violence and death. This idea is normalized and naturalized through sport.  Social choices and media also influence our cultural views on violence-police and detective shows, cowboy and Indian games Erotics of Warrior Culture  In the Executioner, the male is shown as a hero who is strong and armed with guns and weaponry- he is a fighting machine  In war, there is a mother-absent family which consists of brothers and sons. In team sports, athletes are like brothers to each other with the coach being a father or father figure.  Athletes have to prove that they are strong and their scars and wounds are badges of courage Hyper masculinity, Sport Culture, and the Rise of Neoliberalism  Presidents such as Kennedy, Nixon, and Johnson used terms and sentences during their term for Vietnam and others that were gendered to prove their masculinity.  Nixon called himself Quarterback  Government is 1960s and 1970s was regarded as masculine while in 1990s social policies were regarded as feminine  In 1990, the Gulf war took place. This was a chance for the U.S to redeem itself from the results of the Vietnam War. General Schwarzkopf described winning the war as a “Hail Mary” play in football. He called the win a touchdown against Iraq. 6  When President Bush wanted to go to war with Saddam Hussein because he wanted to “kick some ass, “he turned to the Super bowl, which in turn staged the game as war.  The Catharsis theory of sports and aggression is when aggression and violence is channeled in sports and things that have rules and regulations instead of illegal or inappropriate behavior  Cultural pattern theory sees people and their aggressiveness as a learned response. It is because of this that sport and war are related to violence. They cause it rather than being a way to take out aggression. Violence article---???????????? Thesis: Burnen suggests that sports are in need of new heroes, athletes who demonstrate masculinity constructed on a pro-social basis and not one of anti-social means that promote violence Argument 1: Sports contradict the idea that we’re supposed to help those who are hurt Ex. boxing teaches individuals to finish their opponents when they sense weakness - Hockey players getting cheered when they fight Argument 2: Sports consume a majority of an athlete’s time, and it can sometimes be different to decipher “the game” and “real life” Stats: football and basketball players on college schools are 38% more likely to commit a sexual assault - Sport is a human activity, closest to war that isn’t lethal - Professional athletes develop a dominant hyper masculinised personality Relation to the course: - Violence within sports is directly related to themes including: - Power, violence, gender relations In conclusion, to stop violence and gender oppression, we must make it clear and understandable the distinction between “spots realm” and “real life” 7 The coach athlete relationship: how close is too close? - Relationship between coach and athlete runs on a continuum - Range: Strict Friendlyintimate Strict: Advantages: ← pods - Power differential between two parties is acknowledged - No conflict of interest (dating a person with higher power they may feel the need to give them more play time) - No potential for harassment or abuse Disadvantages: - Communication barrier  coach will not be able to coach effectively - Athlete cannot fully understand coach - Cannot work together towards goals Friendship relationship: Advantage: - better communication between parties - Serves purpose of both coach and athlete - Greater potential for development - Respect between both parties - Separation maintained outside of sports Disadvantage - Not as valuable as an ordinary friendship 8 - Not permanent Intimate relationship Advantages: - Understand each other’s passion for sport Disadvantage - Power differential eliminated - Conflict of interest - Can lead to sexual harassment - Athlete cannot make free choice to become involved in an intimate relationship - Athlete fears repercussions if s/he denies coaches advances - Good chance coach will give athlete more play time - Athlete may be treated unfairly - Athlete may be hesitant to break things off dur to the power the coach holds - Disadvantages far outweigh advantages - The question will also be raised concerning whether it is even possible for coaches and athletes not To be friends, considering the amount of time they spend together, and whether being friends is necessary for the sports goals they are trying to achieve. The relationship Continuum - On one end, coaches and athletes maintaining strict coach-athlete roles without becoming friends will be examined. At the other end of the continuum, we have coaches and athletes who have formed sexual and or romantic relationships. Between these ends of the continuum are varying degrees of "friendship"-coaches When Coaches and Athletes Are Intimate 9 - When considering the intimate end of the continuum, Dixon's (1996) distinction between relationships that are sexual without the involvement of intimate romantic feelings, and those that are romantic without any sexual intimacy will be utilized. - When asked about the positive aspects of this situation, the overwhelming answer was "he [or she] understands my passion for the sport." - There are two main "danger" areas when coaches have romantic and/or sexual relationships with their athletes: (1) the power differential, and (2) the conflict of interest. - A position carries with it "power" that extends beyond the area of expertise. That is, the coach's position gives him or her the power to cut a player, to demand extra training sessions, to play or not to play the player in a particular game, and so on. The problem with this kind of "all-encompassing" power is that the relationship cannot possibly be equal. - The main problem with an unequal balance of power (as evident in the position of coach to athlete) is the possibility of true consent on the part of the athlete. Can an athlete make an autonomous choice, that is, a free informed choice, to become involved in an intimate relationship with his or her coach when the coach has the power to cut him or her from the team, add extra training sessions, play or not play him or her, and so on? Thus, a player may fear repercussions if he or she does not accept the coach's advances. This situation can quickly lead to sexual harassment if the player feels that he or she cannot say "no" to the coach and the coach continues to pursue the athlete. - There may be unconscious bias - Regarding the coach-athlete situation, there is a high probability that a coach will unconsciously give the intimate partner more attention, more playing time, and so on. - There may be instances where the coach is aware that others might perceive that he or she is favouring the intimate partner and thus go out of his or her way not to give the intimate partner as much attention, playing time, and so on as the other athletes.2 Either way, the athlete with whom the coach is having the intimate relationship is being treated unfairly. - {1} what if it is the athlete who initiates the relationship, and (2) what if the coach is not the coach of the intimate partner but they are involved in the same sport? - For example, even if the athlete initiated the relationship, if things turn sour, the athlete might be hesitant to break things off because of the power the coach holds as a result of his or her position as a coach. When coaches and athletes are Friends - there are varying degrees of friendship t}lat can exist between coaches and athletes- coaches and athletes who share personal aspects of their lives with each other and or spend time with each other outside the sporting context, for example, going out for meals together, and those coaches and athletes who are simply "friendly" with each other. - There are two main issues that arise when considering deep friendship between coaches and their athletes: (1) can "unequal’s" (regarding the power differential discussed earlier when examining intimate relationships) be friends, and (2) does the same conflict of interest that exists between intimates exist between friends? - A friend is that neither party to the relationship is under the· authority of the other" - The social conventions governing coach-athlete relationships could be seen to be analogous to the social conventions governing parent-child relationships. 10 - Because of the unequal situation brought about by the authoritative role of the coach compared to the less autonomous role of the athlete, the coach and athlete cannot be "deep friends." - if coaches cannot treat their friends impartially, and this would seem to be what is implied in a deep friendship, that is, "[it is only when two individuals allow their feelings about each other to influence how they treat each other that a friendship can exist" – coaches and athletes should not have a deep friendship When Coaches Are Coaches and Athletes Are Athletes - (1) is it possible for coaches and athletes to maintain strict coach-athlete roles and (2) is it even desirable, given their shared sporting goals, for coaches and athletes not to be friends? The benefits of coaches being coaches and athletes being athletes (if it is possible to maintain these roles without becoming friends) is that the power differential between the two roles is acknowledged, no conflict of interest arises, and there is no potential for harassment or abuse. - If it gets to the extreme where coaches are so cold, it does not benefit the athlete or the coach, that is a danger\ - That it is possible to maintain the roles of coach and athlete, even acting friendly toward each other, but not becoming friends. A critical point of Marlcle's position is that the professor (or coach) must be interested in information about the student (or athlete) but not share personal information about him or herself - How do they share information without becoming friends? - Types of friendships: 19984). In a goodness friendship, the bond is based on the friends' characters. "Each partner loves the other for what makes her the person she is, with her particular attitudes, aspirations and dispositions" (White 1990, 83). Pleasure friends enjoy one another's company, and the bond between them is simply their mutual pleasure seeking. Utility friends love each other because each is useful or advantageous to the other. - The best relationship for a coach and athlete is utility – they can share information to meet the same goals The Olympic logo Q. According to the authors, the Olympic logo is a sign, what does this mean? A. A sign consist of a significant and dignified - Signifier: material part of a sign - signified: meaning or object represented by the signifier  Olympic games 11 Signifier: Signified: Olympic games Q. How does a signifier represent a signnified? (How does the logo represent the Olympic Games?) A. The connection between signifier and signified is arbitraty - connection is a socially constructed one i.e. The connection is a convention or rule. The connection is referred to as a “code” - however, some signifiers have a “natural bond” with thier signifieds in addition to any convention that connects them Q. According to the authors, does the Olympic logo signifier have a natural bond with its signified? A. No, the rings don’t have a bond Authors debunk (prove that it was false) some myths - The rings represent the continents  NO! - The colours of the rings represent the continents  NO! - The rings represent ancient Olympic Games  NO! “NO, indeed the history of the rings has shown there to be no such natural bond “ “Origins of the rings were as a commemorative icon” - The Olympic logo represents itself as the sign of the Olympic games - As such it represents no deep meaning or value about the games Q. How is logo such a powerful advertising tool? 12 A. as the symbol has no inherent meaning, it serves as a powerful advertising tool use to represent virtually any product; advertisers could construct any story they wanted around and symbol “The Olympic logo is an irrelevant signifier” Boudreau, I. (1998). Health and Medicine. Thesis “It is important for us to examine what we know about health, illness, and the responses devised by societies to deal with these concerns. Sociology, with is concepts and paradigms, its empirical research and knowledge, becomes a crucial source of insight.” - We all have this ideal goal of living a long a happy life, but it is clearly easier said than done. - We have the power of controlling this by making wise choices, this has been made easy with today’s available technologies, and all you have to do is dig into your pockets and buy the latest fitness equipments and choose healthy lifestyles. - With this we have adopted a view that health is not only an absence of illness but rather an overall sense of well-being. - The paper discusses the importance of knowledge towards health and illness and how society attempts at handling these issues. - Dominant Paradigms Structural Functionalist Approach • Argues that someone who is ill is seen represents a failure to conform to institutionalized norms and expectations and therefore constitutes a form of deviance. • “Sick role” brings some validity to the situation. Role of sick person: - Not responsible for incapacity - Exempt from normal role/ obligations, according to nature of illness - Should try and want to get well 13 - Expected to seek help/follow instructions The Symbolic Interactionist Approach • Looks at how people deal with “sick role” in real life situations • E x. How peoples (friends, family physicians) labels change from someone who is considered bizarre and someone who is schizophrenic. • For people who are alcoholic or have mental problems, or are an AIDS victim their label shifts from a normal identity to a total identity in which their health conditions define who they are and engulf a persons identity. The Marxist/Political Economy Approach • Main goal is profit and not to cure. • Big companies/doctors sell medicine and promote healthy being in order to make more money. • Critics argue that it fails to acknowledge the health status improvements and medical progress attained. The Feminist Approach • Women are seen as more passive and weak and less developed. • In the past men have had more education because they were more likely to be accepted to medical schools. • Male doctor’s opinion is dominant; more people would prefer a male doctor versus a women doctor. This relates to the power lecture studied in the course because it shows the male dominance and the advantages that men have had throughout history. I’m going to be talking about social epidemiology and determinants of health. Both of these topics have to do with how society and its conditions affect health in a specific population. Within the article, Boudreau gives some statistics from another article by Dorgan about the life expectancy between men and woman depending on what country they live in from a study done in the 1950’s. These statistics show that the lowest life expectancy for woman is in Afghanistan and the highest for both men and woman is in Japan. Some other factors that have to do with 14 social epidemiology are: health distribution, age, socioeconomic status, race and ethnicity and gender. According to Boudreau, the best way to study health distribution is by using either incidence or prevalence to classify a population. Incidence is any new case of disease, and prevalence includes previous cases and new cases of disease. Age is another factor to consider and many Canadians believe that they are in great health. As people age, the more that belief diminishes with Statistics Canada reporting 79% of men and 77% of woman from ages 15-34 who believe they are in good health to only 7% of men and 6% of women for people age 55 and over. Another topic which was also discussed in lecture is socioeconomic status, which has to do with people having a low income and how they tend to have worse health. Race and ethnicity is another factor to take into account. In general, black people have a higher death rate, are more prone to disease, illness and have a lower life expectancy in comparison to whites. In Canada, Natives also are more prone to death either by poisoning, accidents, etc. The topics of determinants of health are: human biology, environmental factors, lifestyle and health care organization. Human biology is related to the physiological differences between men and women, and as such, women having two X chromosomes, is thought to be related to women’s being less susceptible to diseases. Environmental factors account for different aspects, such as the physical environment which has to do with what surrounds the body physically. Psychosocial environment has to do with a person’s social life such as friends, family, stress, income, etc. Research has shown that people who have that net of support around them tend to be in better health, both physically and mentally. All of these factors support the thesis by explaining some evidence we know about health and the sociological factors related to it. Illness behaviours and experiences Illness behaviours and experiences deal with the way people react towards the topic of illness and these two topics also deal with the depth of measures some people are willing to take to deal with illnesses. These two topics have a lot to do with health and medicine since poor health does often result in illness, and medicine can have a huge on the behaviours and experiences that patients and people of illness can display. There were 5 stages of the illness experience which include symptom experience, assumption of the sick role, medical care contact, dependent patient role, and recovery or rehabilitation. Sometimes there is a sixth stage in this experience and this stage is known as death. The symptom experience is the conception you have of the illness, whether you think it is normal or not. Whether you believe if it is bearable or not, these opinions can be affected by gender, culture, and class etc. Assumption of the sick role deals with how someone responds to the role of being ill. Some people are unable to accept the fact that they are ill, many people tend to forget about the fact that they are ill 15 since they view illness as a type of disgrace. Medical Care Contact deals with the process of actively and motivationally seeking help. Many individuals may not want to seek help since the process of seeking help takes a lot of time, and also it can be a very depressing period of time. The dependent-patient role deals with the relationship that a patient and his/her doctor have towards each other. Recovery and rehabilitation deals with the progression that the patient is displaying in regards to getting better. This topic relates heavily to themes of Kinesiology. One of kinesiology’s main components deals with the importance of a healthy lifestyle and healthy living. When an individual is faced with an illness, then once they under any sort of examination then their health and lifestyle choices are observed. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle often keeps you away from contracting any diseases or weaknesses within your body. The Behaviours and experiences of illnesses have a huge affect on lifestyle and have a huge influence on a person both mentally and physically. The health Care system: - Hidden Health Care system/ formal HCS. o Hidden health care system: Actual patient care is carried out at home. o An effective way to cut back on health care costs is to move more towards a community based HCS.  Means a transfer of responsibilities to unpaid housewives, sisters and daughters.  Also includes care provided by alternative, native, spiritual, and psychic healers.  Also includes Non-allopathic medicine (non-traditional western medicine). - Formal Health care system: o “Tangible outcome of intense ideological, social, and political struggles. o Includes 4 broad types of HC. (P 307) Expand on each one.  US system : Free market health care.  National health insurance system (Canadian system).  British National Health Service system. 16  USSR/ Former soviet block health care system. o Doctors and Nurses in the formal HCS:  In western countries, medicine is largely entrepreneurial.  Given the fact that in Canada the bills are paid by the government, over-service results.  Doctors can control their income by controlling workload.  There are too many doctors per capita. o T he medical profession and professionalism.  Occupation of physician is accorded status, wealth and prestige.  However, physician’s professionalism, often does not match the idealized image we have of it. • Doctor patient relationship is often subject to time constraints which makes most practitioners filter out what their patient is telling them. • Physicians’ work rate is often directly proportional to their desired year end income. • Physicians show preference for interesting cases and dislike cases such as back pain, chronic fatigue because it “calls their diagnostic skills into question”. • Some doctors actively attempt to get rid of patients (often called, gomers, crock, dirtballs, and brain stem preparations). • Doctor’s moral judgment and prejudice can play a role in how they treat patients (IE: old welfare recipient with gentile disease will often believed to be the result of promiscuity = less considerate treatment. o The socialization of doctors:  Doctors are taught to actively adopt an attitude of detached concern. This is done in order for doctors to avoid excessive emotional involvement and identification with their clients. (For the sake of proficiency). 17  Hass and Shaffir came up with the concept of the doctor “identity kit” which is issued to them upon entering the profession. This kit includes costumes, props and vocabulary. They are required to memorize certain line and act a certain way, almost as if following a script. This allows them to develop a protective carapace.  Students entering the medical profession face three kinds of uncertainties. • No one can learn everything there is to learn about medicine. • Uncertainty given the fact that knowledge of current medicine is limited. • The impossibility of knowing whether uncertainty is due to personal ignorance or current scientific limitations. o The feminization of medicine:  The current trend is the rise of female representation amongst medical students. However in medicine, like any other field of society class loyalties prevail. o Proletarianization of Medicine:  Initially, Marxist theorists presented evidence of Medical Imperialism. In the following decade, they offered proof of loss of dominance.  Increasing costs are making health care a public rather than professional concern.  Doctors are like unionized workers who receive their pay per patient.  Doctors have adopted strike action as a pressure tactic.  Changes in work environment in hospitals is now a kin to factories.  Doctors no longer hold the same position of power and autonomy in hospitals that they once did. o Nurses – skilled workers or professionals:  Registered nurses = 50% of all health care resources in Canada. 18  The educational upgrades/unionization was opposed by doctors, and were justified on grounds that their tasks are similar to “familial labors of love”.  Nurses have to adopt the “Nurse-Doctor” game (stein). This requires nurses to live up to the stereotype that doctors are dominant whereas nurses as passive. • Nurses must act in a manner that backs the doctor’s belief that their action is infallible. They must learn to give advice without seeming to do so.  Nurses have demanded that this relationship be replaced with one of partnership rather than patriarchal subordination.  Economic hardships and cost cutting often affects nurses in a more direct manner than it does doctors – job insecurity, pay restraints, overwork shortage of personnel and proletarianized working conditions.  Nurses often have very strict rules and working constraints (i.e. showering someone in 6 minutes) which leads to stress, anxiety and lowered efficiency of the nurses. o Institutions: Hospitals and Community resources.  Modern hospitals have been compared to factories. • The work setting, unionization, complexity of occupational tasks and the elaborate structure. • There is a view that there are too many hospitals and hospital beds in Canada. • For this reason, there is a deinstitutionalization – the policy and the process of reducing the dependence on hospitalization for the provision of community based-services. • Encouraged by financial imperatives, people are realizing that is may be better for people to be cared for in the community – Hospitalization should be avoided if possible.  Alternatives to hospitals: 19 • Community health clinics. • Health services organization in which doctors are paid either a salary or independent of the number of patients they see per day or a monthly payment for the number of patients seen, regardless of the treatment offered.  Home care support: • Home support services, Chronic cares services, acute care substitution (to help recover from surgery).  Problem – community resources for not meet the need. Neither communities nor individuals are often welcoming to the idea. • This is due to the costs it holds to the caregivers – stress, physical exhaustion, recurrent absentiesm and possible job loss. • This can lead to anger, frustration, inappropriate treatment, neglect, abuse, or no care at all.  Quality of health care in Canada is heading “towards deterioration in conditions for both patients and workers”. Sociology IN Medicine - Research and examination done by experts to develop ideas as to why certain economic groups are more likely to get a certain sickness or disease or what effects some form of theory or rehab will have on certain patients - Focus needs and interests of medicine Sociology OF Medicine - Involves analysis of medical practice as a sociological system - Explore medicine as a segment of society just like education and religion where they have distinctive social institutions, class and power relations, norms, values, etc 20 THE BODY SNATCHERS AND DR. FRANKENSTEIN REVISITED: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION AND • DECONSTRUCTION OF; BODIES AND SPORT Body as a machine - Sport educators affect the social construction of 3 categories and can influence the ethic of care 1) Possess body f knowledge 2) Help in building body of athletes 3) Contribute to creation of body politics - Poststructuralist theory suggests who we are and what we can be is restricted by the language and symbols we use - Great emphasis on power The Bodies of Athletes - Competitive sports have a high risk of injury - Athletes often sacrifice health for victory o Emphasis on winning far outweighs risk of injury The Body of Politics - The ability of athletes to withstand physical and emotional abuse while being obedient to any forms of authority has become normalized by sports education The importance of ethics - Sport educators need to promote their athletes to inquire the official rules and unofficial customs of organizations - Develop ideas based on the morality of sport practices - The care and concern of others is very important in the basis of developing an ethical response to others 21 Summary An Ethic of Caring - The ethic of justice focuses primarily on questions of fairness and is based on the conformity to rules, the legal elaboration of rights, the rational resolution of conflict, and abstract universal principles - An ethic of care grounds moral theory in nurturance, emotional responsively, human interdependence and preservative love - Practicing an ethic of care involves demonstrating concert for the protection, growth, health and well being of self and other - It emphasizes the importance of developing a sense of emotional empathy and responding to human needs - Sport educators and sport scientists affect the social construction of three categories of bodies in sport. First, they produce a body of knowledge. Second, they assist in constructing the bodies of athletes. Third, as educators, they contribute to the creation of the body politic. The body of knowledge - Poststructuralist theory suggests that that we are or think we can be is constrained by the language we use and the symbol systems with which we interact. - strengths of poststructuralist theory is the recognition of the socially constructed nature of knowledge - A major part of poststructuralist theory is power: the power to name, define, and give meaning to reality - A primary tool is deconstruction: applied to sport, deconstruction involves an analysis of the texts, technologies, and forms of subjectivity produced by the various disciplines within sport studies. Deconstruction is used here to reveal the forms of social control induced by sport discourses - PAIN AND DISASSOCIATION - Who athletes are and what they are concerned about are both created and reflected in the Production of research and the writing of texts. In most sport psychology texts. Performance has Been made the dependent variable and the athletic self is characterized as a performer/producer - Sport discourses represent the athletic body as a tool or machine whose purpose is successful performance - The human body is an object to be manipulated - By viewing a human as an object, you take away the ethics or emotional responsibility and empathy 22 - Socialization toward self – abnegation and bodily sacrifice in sport involve the process of disembodiment - Dissociate mind from body which can be used to block pain - Ignoring pain usually leads to the athlete having a higher risk of injury - Pain tolerance research often ignores both the ethical implications of teaching athletes to play in pain and the possible negative health effects on athletes who are encouraged to play in pain. In - Sport professionals engage in a morally dangerous practice in the socialization of emotion. - Being sensitive to pain, feeling empathy, and responding to another's need are basic to moral behaviour - The desire to prevent or relieve pain is a natural element of caring. and we betray our ethical selves when we ignore it or concoct rationalizations to act in defiance of it Emotional Distancing - Asymmetrical power relations between coaches and athletes contribute to the practice of social and emotional distancing between coaches and athletes. Coaches who feel the game is more important than the athlete often engage in social and emotional distancing from their athletes. Coaches who do not spend time getting to know their athletes and who do not listen to athlete concerns are less likely to feel a strong personal responsibility to care for the athlete. - coaches are more concerned with giving than with receiving information, are selective in soliciting feedback, tend not to view athlete's feelings as valid, are not comfortable allowing athletes' input - moral callousness: insensitive, hardened, represents a person’s feelings - a sport environment which desensitizes both coaches and athletes from their own feelings and feelings of others - individuals need to be emotionally sensitized in order to act as a moral being The Bodies of Athletes - An important aspect of an ethic of care is demonstrating respect for the integrity of embodiment - Caring involves showing concern for the well being of others - Pain and injuries are normalized - Emphasis on sport is on winning, whether that is good or bad - Athletes are willing to sacrifice health for winning – this causes more injuries - Sport perpetuates the belief in a strong correspondence between physical/mental health and superior athletic success 23 - Many young athletes develop chronic problems from sport that cause them pain and affect the quality of their lives for the rest of their years. (bulimia/anorexia) - increasing levels of competitiveness, more and more bodies are being permanently affected through sport-related illness and injury The Body politic - Few sport discourses question power relations in society; fewer still question the power of the coach vis-a-vis the athlete - Instead, sport educators normalize athletes who are willing to take physical and emotional abuse and willing to give automatic obedience to authority figures. Athletes are socialized into a "norm of expected inequity" regarding coach-athlete relations - There are also expected to be dominant and aggressive while playing - Educators must foster in students the ability to question, on moral grounds, the formal rules and informal norms of organizations - Educators need to develop political subjects who will question the morality of sport practices that permit the infliction of pain on others and that result in high rates of injury for participants - When pedagogy emphasizes an ethic of care, students and athletes begin to see the importance of expanding human rights, of protecting the health and well-being of those who sport, and of struggling against exploitation, injustice, and needless human suffering. Second, critical pedagogy emphasizes the practice of desilencing. Desilencing involves bringing to public consciousness aspects of sport and athletes' experiences that are kept hidden to preserve the status quo. Critical pedagogy requires studying the damage caused by not changing social conditions, including present power relations - Desilencing might also reveal how racism and homophobia in sport cause untold damage to both sport participants and society - Third, critical pedagogy must encourage students and athletes to value difference and to reject master - Narratives in favour of partial epistemologies. A healthy body politic is sceptical of claims of objectivity and is sensitive to truth claims that are local, partial, and historically situated. - Critical pedagogy encourages students and athletes to challenge and transform, rather than to adapt to, existing social and political forms that are dehumanizing, harmful, or exploitive. - Individuals are expected to accept both the rules given to them and the authorities already in place. Rarely do athletes feel they have the power to question the structure or rules under which they play. DR. FRANKENSTEIN AND THE BODY SNATCHERS - Educators and scientists must begin to recognize the dangers of narrowing their vision to performance, making it the dependent variable in sport texts. Second, they must question their success in promoting the well-being of people who sport. 24 - Alien clones, emerging from pods, begin taking over the bodies of townspeople in California. Exact in every physical and mental detail, the only hint of difference is that the clones feel no emotion-no pain, but also no empathy, no love. - As in sport, the loss of feeling signals the loss of the moral and ethical self, the absence of humanity. When athletes are taught to disassociate the body from feelings, they risk losing a key experience in moral development—emotional responsively. When coaches emotionally distance themselves from their athletes, they risk forgetting their responsibility to care. - Sport educators and scientists need to work with students and athletes to reconstruct the rules of sport so that doctors need not reconstruct the bodies of athletes - Sport professionals are significantly involved in the social construction of sport and bodies in our culture Globalization - Describes the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation and trade - Is the flow across national boundaries of goods and services, capital, people technology, ideas and culture, etc? - Is most closely associated with economic globalization o The integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign investments migration, spread of technology, and military presence. - The term can also refer to transnational circulation of ideas, languages, or culture through acculturation Interconnectivity - Key element of globalization - Heightened independence of commerce (corporate and small), governments, and individuals around the world Time –space compression - Refers to series of technological breakthroughs in communication and transportation that make it possible to more capital and info across the world at a push of a button - Info can be moved more quickly and cheaply than ever 25 Globalization new - Not really! - For thousands of years people have been buying and selling from each other from great distances - People and corporations have been investing in enterprises for centuries Globalizations two continua 1) Political and economic - ‘testicular globalization’   ‘tough –love globalization’ (20 century Cold War Economies (contemporary) a) Testicular - Seizes upon current technology and enhanced trade opportunities and works towards retaining the economic dominance of Industrial West at expense of others b) – more democratic - Allows entry to those that can take advantage of globalization and turns its back to all others 2) Cultural Criteria; tension between global and local forces ‘Americanization’  ‘cultural resistance’ Americanization is the spread of American communities around the world used to enhance American influence and power. E.g. McDonalds, Coca-Cola ‘Cultural Resistance’ - The triumph of local groups in the face of globalized forces Global Sports Studies
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