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KINE 1020 (58)

Lab Notes for Semester 1

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Jennifer Kuk

KINE 1020 – Lab Notes Overview – Physical Fitness - Depends on the individual o Heredity, environment, lifestyle  Make up a physical state of well being - Divided into 3 components: o Anthropometry  Skeletal. Muscular, skinfolds, composition o Musculoskeletal  Balance, flexibility, agility, strength, power, muscular endurance o Cardiovascular-respiratory  Aerobic fitness, anaerobic fitness Definitions - Physical fitness: o The capacity to live an optimal life o A functional quality of well-being that is influenced by, and associated with, participation in physical activity o The ability to perform muscular work satisfactorily  Determined by the level of cardiovascular-respiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition - Health-related fitness: those components of fitness that exhibit a relationship with health status - Performance related fitness: those components of fitness that enable optimal work/sport performance - Physiological fitness: both physical fitness and the biological indicators that exhibit a relationship with health status and which are defined by the level of physical activity o Ex: blood pressure, glucose tolerance, the blood liquid profile Lab 1 – Exercise Screening, Lifestyle Evaluation, Physical Activity Participation Evaluation & Anthropometry Screening for Exercise Participation and Informed Consent: - The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) o Self-administered test to see if you are at risk if you increase your physical activity levels  Applies to a small number of people below the age of 69  People above 70 should check with their doctors before increasing their physical activity o Valid for up to 12 months  Becomes invalid if your health changes and you answer “yes” to any of the 7 questions • Consult a doctor before resuming rigorous PA o May administer the:  Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examinations (PARmed-X) – if you answered YES to any question  PARmed-X for Pregnancy – for pregnant women who want to become active - Informed Consent o Participants must be told the risks of doing any proposed fitness activity o Should be given an informed consent form  Describes activity, warns of risks, space where participant can indicate that they understand (by signing)  Is short and easy to read, applies to all activities available, states the fitness professionals responsibilities and limitations  Is NOT a waiver, leaves the right to sue if they want to Lifestyle & PA Participation Assessment: - Healthy Lifestyle Assessment o Poor lifestyle habits = linked to diseases like heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, etc.  Ex: high fat diets, smoking (tobacco), excessive alcohol consumption o Lifestyle inventories are available to assess an individual’s health  Ex: the fancy Personal Wellness Profile (PWP) or the simple FANTASTIC Lifestyle Checklist - Healthy PA Participation o Explains the benefits of PA even without evident changes in fitness Anthropometric and Skinfold Measurements - Ex: weight, height, body fat - For measuring body fat: skinfold o Reflects amount of fat under the skin measured in mm using a skinfold caliper o Measurements should be taken on the right side of the body o Skeletal measurements: weight, height, hip/shoulder/elbow width, ankle/wrist circumference, chest depth o Muscular measurements: thigh circumference, gluteal/hip circumference, biceps circumference, waist circumference o Skinfold measurements: chest (males), umbilical, front thigh, biceps = front; triceps, sub-scapula, rear thigh (females) = back; medial calf, iliac crest = side - Can determine your body frame by measuring the width of your elbow Lab 2 – Body Weight Evaluation & Fitness Training Considerations Evaluation of Body Weight, Adiposity and Fat Distribution - Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Approach (CPAFLA) o Body fat predicting equations are not universally applicable  Other factors should be considered like gender and age o CPAFLA considers 3 indicators when assessing body weight, adiposity and fat distribution  BMI: ratio of body weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared • Not always a good indicator of too much or little fat (must refer to SO5S)  SO5S (sum of 5 skinfolds): triceps, biceps, subscapular, iliac crest, medial calf (all in mm) • Enhances the accuracy of evaluating the BMI value  WC: waist circumference • Excessive fat in this area = increased morbidity (illness or disease) and mortality • If measured alone assume BMI of 27 o Using BMI, SO5S and WC gives the best results  Scoring table are gender specific but do not account for age o Health benefit zones = excellent, very good, good, fair, needs improvement  Best health results seen when a person moves from needs improvement to fair - Interpreting the Health Benefit Ratings o Higher BMI, SO5S and WC = associated with:  Hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cancer, heart disease, abnormal blood lipids, stroke o Improvement in body composition can lead to:  Decreased stress on bones/joints and chance of injury/disability, increased participation in PA, improved psychological well-being Fitness Training Considerations: - General Principles of Training o Overload: body has to be overloaded in order to see improvement in fitness- related body systems. Increase the following to overload:  Frequency: times/week you exercise • 5-6 = optimal or twice a day, 6 days/week for performance athletes  Intensity: rate/speed of exercise or weight lifted/# of reps  Duration: length of exercise session • 40-50 mins depending on your frequency, more for athletes o Progression: continuous improvement is achieved when workload is progressively increased o Specificity: for certain training outcomes you have for work certain energy systems/muscle groups o Warm up: prepares your body for training (ex: dynamic stretching) o Cool down: milder exercises t
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