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Chapter 1

Chapters 1 and 2

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2011
Roy Parteno

Chapter 1Physiologyis the study of the functions of living things how the human body worksTechnological approach explaining body functions by bodily need why or purpose of functionMechanistic Approach explaining actions in terms of cause and effect with physical and chemical reactionsexample Shivering When temperature sensitive nerve cells detect a fall in temperature they signal the area in the brain responsible for temperature regulation In response this brain area activates nerve pathways that bring the involuntary oscillating muscle contractionsPhysiologists explain HOW events occur in the bodyIt is helpful to think of which body part would be used for certain functions therefore logically reason what would happen in a situationAnatomy the study of the structure of the bodyLEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN THE BODYChemical level atoms are the building blocks most common in the body oxygen carbon hydrogen nitrogen 96calcium phosphorus and potassium contribute 4these combine to form molecules such as proteins carbohydrates lipids DNA nucleic acidsCellular levelCell smallest unit of life able to carry out functionsPlasma membrane thin oily barrier encloses the contents of a cell selectively permeable membrane Decides what to let in and out of the cell because what is inside differs from the surrounding environment organisms independent living entitiesosingle celled organisms are the simplest form of independent life bacteria amoebasomulti cellular complex organisms trees humans In simple multi cellular organisms the cells can be identical but in complex humans you have different cellsmuscle nerve glandoA human is created when the egg and sperm unite to form a single cell that begins dividing through CELL DIFFERENTIATION which is why the cells are not identical and are divided to carry out specific functionsBasic cell functions essential for survival metabolism growth and reproduction and the following1Obtaining food and oxygen from the surrounding environment2Performing chemical reactions that use nutrients and oxygen to provide energy for the cell foodOCOHOenergy2223Getting rid of cell waste byproducts and CO2 to the cell surrounding during these chemical reactions4Synthesizing proteins and components needed for cell structure growth and carrying out cell functions5CONTROLLING THE EXCHANGE OF MATERIALS BETWEEN THE INSIDEOUTSIDE OF CELL6Transporting materials from one part of the cell to another7Being able to adapt to changes in surrounding environment8Reproduce for most cells some at a certain point lose this function musclenerve cells once they are formed during early developmentSpecialized cell functionsIn multicellular organisms different cells perform specialized specific functions oExample stomach glad cells secrete digestive enzymes to break downfoodThe specialized cells carry out their specialized functions and the basic onesThe basic ones are essential for the survival of the cell and the extra for the survival of the bodyTissue levelCells with similar cell structure and function combine to form tissuesFOUR PRIMARY TYPES muscle tissue nervous tissue epithelial tissue connective tissueMuscle tissue contracting and generating force skeletal muscle moves skeletoncardiac muscle pumps blood out of the heartsmooth muscle encloses and controls movement throughout hollow tubes and organs such as food through digestive tractNervous tissue cells specialized for initiating and transmitting electrical impulses which are signals Found in brain spinal cord nervesEpithelial tissueexchanges materials between cells and its environment Anything that enters or leaves the cells meets itEpithelial sheets and secretory glands are the two general structure typesEpithelial cells join in very tight bonds to form sheets of tissue that cover the body
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