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Chapter 1

Physiology Chapter 1 summary For visual people, Kin 2011.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2011
Gillian Wu

Chapter 1  Kin 2011 will cover the chemical, cellular, tissue, and organ functions in the human body.  Basic Cell Function Food + O2 Food + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energy CO2 + Waste Outside of Cell Inside of the cell Outside of the cell - Cells have a mechanism that can help them control the exchange of material in side the cell and the cell’s surrounding environment. Cells are able to synthesize what they need, and are able to reproduce (exceptions are nerve & muscle cells). - When the human is a fetus, it is composed of undifferentiated stem cell. They are cells that don’t know what they want to become (eg. Heart cells or brain cells). Later they differentiate to the four primary types of tissues. The Four Primary Types of Tissues Nervous Tissues -Consist of cells Muscle Tissues Epithelial Tissues specialized for initiating -They contract to generate force, -consist of cells specialized for Connective Tissues & transmitting electrical exchanging materials btwn the -Connect and support impulses. and are made of 3 types: cell and its environment. They body parts. -Found in brain, spinal 1-Skeletal muscles (moves the -Distinguished by having cord, and nerves. skeleton) consist of 2 types: few cells spread within a 2-Cardiac Muscles (pump blood 1- Epithelial sheets (e.g. skin, GI out of heart) tract) lot of extracellular 2- Secretory glands. Secretory material (E.g. tendons, 3-Smooth Muscles (Surround & glands arise from an invagination bone, and blood). control movement of molecules through hollow tubes and of the surface of the epithelial organs). cell. They consist of 2 types: a) Exocrine glands: release substance through a duct to the outside (the surface). b) Endocrine glands: release substance to the inside (the blood), since their connecting cells to the surface were lost. - A body system is a system where organs work together to function; the system does not work if one organ is missing. The human body has 11 systems.  (Know which system is which and what it is made up of, the function of these systems is explained in the next page)  Homeostasis: is the maintenance of the internal environment in a relatively stable range, using feedback mechanisms. Each cell contributes to this internal stable environment, whether it is pH, temperature, water conservation ... etc.  Negative feedback: is when the body proceeds to stop something because of too much of it. Positive feedback: is when the body proceeds to increase the release of something because it needs more of it.  Body cells live in a watery environment. Cells live in extracellular fluid (fluid outside the cell). This outside fluid consist of interstitial fluid (mainly water), and plasma (blood). Moreover, the cell also has fluid within itself, this is called intracellular fluid. This wonderful structure is made so specific molecules can be transported in and out of the cell, thereby maintaining the cells in a stable environment (Homeostasis) -Homeostasis regulates the concentrations of nutrient molecules, O2 & CO2, water, salt, other electrolytes, and waste products. It also regulates Volume, pressure, temperature, and pH. -Disruption of homeostasis can lead to illness or death. Example of this is liposuction, since liposuction involves the removal of body fluid as a side effect. Hypovolemic is the case where too much fluid is removed which leads to death because of inadequate circulatory volume to sustain normal homeostasis. In conclusion, homeostasis is essential for the survival of the cells, the body system maintains homeostasis, and cells make up the body system. So, homeostasis is essential for the survival of cells.  Body systems and their functions (11 Systems): 1-Nervous system: transports information from the external environment and then acts through electrical signals to control rapid responses of the body; also it is responsible for higher functions like memory and creativity in the brain. 2-Respiratory system: obtains O2 from and eliminates CO2 to the external environment; helps regulate pH by adjusting the following formula, CO2 + H2 H2CO3 HCO3 + H+ (this is called the buffer system). 3-Urinary system: It consists mainly of the kidney. It is important in regulating volume, electrolytes (metal ions, like sodium) composition, pH of internal environment; removes excess water, salt, acid from the plasma and eliminates them in urine. 4-Digestive system: obtains nutrients, water, and electrolytes from the external environment (the cavity from the mouth to the anus) and transfers them into the plasma, eliminates undigested food residue to the external environment. 5-Reproductive system: it is not essential in maintaining homeostasis but essential for survival of the species. 6-Circulatory system: transports nutrients, O2, Co2, wastes, electrolytes, and hormones throughout the body. 7-Endocrine system: acts by means of hormones secreted into blood to regulate processes that require duration rather than speed (e.g. metabolic activities and water & electrolyte balance) 8-Integumentary system: it keeps the foreign particles out by serving as a protective barrier between the external environme
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