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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2011
Gillian Wu

Ch 1: Homeostasis – The Foundation to Physiology  Physiology: the study of the functions of living things  Teleological approach: explains bodily functions based on way they occur and NOT on the how  Mechanistic approach: approach that physiologist take; explain how something happens based on physical and chemical responses from the body  Anatomy: the structure of the body Levels of Organization in the Body CHEMICAL LEVEL  Atoms: smallest building blocks of all matter (most common are O, C, H & N, which make up 96% of total body chemistry)  Atoms combine to make molecules CELLULAR LEVEL  Cells: the basic structure of living beings (smallest unit to carry out life)  Plasma membrane  Organisms: independent living entities (simplest form are single celled i.e. bacteria and amoebas)  8 basic cell functions o Obtain food and oxygen from surrounding cell areas o Provide energy to cells: food + O 2> CO +2H O 2 energy o Elimination of by products during energy production (like CO ) 2 o Creates proteins for growth and cell structure o Controls exchange of materials to surrounding cells o Moves materials o Responsive to changes in surrounding areas o Reproduction TISSUE LEVEL  Tissues: cells of similar structure and specialized function o 4 primary type: muscle, nervous, epithelial and connective  Muscle tissue: used to contract and generate force  Nervous tissue: used to transmit electrical impulses  Epithelial tissue: used to exchange materials from cells and their environment (consists of the epithelial sheets and secretory glands) – requires selective transfer of the materials that can go in o Example: Top layer of the skin and the lining of the digestive tract o Glands: derivatives of epithelial tissue used for secretion (releases specific products created from the cells) - there are exocrine and endocrine glands  Exocrine glands: create ducts outside of the cell, like sweat glands  Endocrine glands: used for hormones, are ductless and release there products into the blood i.e. insulin  Connective tissue: connects, support
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