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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2011
Gillian Wu

CH 2: CELL PHYSIOLOGY ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND SEGREATED SYNTHESIS Rough ER  Has ribosomes that bind to it when protein synthesis begins, so they are found in higher magnitudes in cells that need more protein secretion or cells that need extensive membrane synthesis Smooth ER  Packages and discharges the proteins that were synthesized in the rough ER – the part responsible for transporting will bud off of the rest of the ER and become a transport vesicle (this part of the ER is replaced with a newly synthesized portion created in the rough ER)  Also used for lipid synthesis  Also works as a detoxifier in the liver cells of harmful substances that come from outside the body GOLGI COMPLEX AND EXOCYTOSIS  Each complex consists of cisternae – flattened, membrane enclosed sacs TRANSPORT VESICLES  Once the transport vesicles from smooth ER are bundled, they enter the Golgi stack; the sacs fuse with the membrane and the contents are released into the stack  Raw materials become finished products here (raw protein becomes something that can be used)  Finished products are transported to their destinations SECRETORY VESICLES  Certain vesicles take in certain products so they go to the correct destination  Proteins have markers: docking markers so they go to the correct docking- marker acceptor (so they are sorted in the correct vesicles)  Secretory cells include: endocrine cells and digestive cells (have digestive enzymes released)  Secretory vesicles are 200 times larger than transport vesicles and the proteins are stored in the vesicles until they are needed to be released  Secretion: release of products in secretory vesicles to the ECF (through exocytosis) o Fuse w/ plasma membrane to be released (steps for exocytosis follow):  The vesicles have recognition markers for specific proteins; the proteins have a unique sequence of a.acids known as sorting signals; these are used to ensure they are packaged in the right golgi sac (vesicles formation)  Cytosol sends coat proteins to surround the vesicles membrane to create a dome around the golgi, which pinches it off the golgi membrane  The vesicle (now in the cytosol) looses the coat protein exposing the docking markers known as V-Snares  V-Snares bind to T-Snares on the plasma membrane that only accept the specific V-Snares – these then fuse, the vesicle can open and release its content LYSOSOMES AND ENDOCYTOSIS LYSOSOMES AND DIGESTION  Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes – create hydrolysis rxns to clean cell debris and foreign materials  Known as the intracellular digestive system and they vary in size and shape PHAGOCYTOSIS OF EXTRACELLULAR MATERIAL  Endocytosis: pinocytosis, receptor-mediated, phagocytosis  Pino: small things enter the membrane, by forming a vesicle (endocytotic vesicle) w/ the membrane to enter it (nonselective)  Receptor-med: molecules, like proteins, bind to receptors which causes the membrane to sink in, seal, and trap the protein (how insulin enters) o Viruses can also enter this way by pretending to be a molecule that its not  Phago: large multimolecular particles come in (only few cells do this) i.e. white blood cells do this with bacteria’s: bacteria is surrounded by a pseudopod which enters the cell as a vesicles and fuses with a lysosome to release enzymes to break down the bacteria – safe way to attack bacteria and not harm the rest of the cells organelles LYSOSOMES AND REMOVAL  Autophagy: fusion of a lysosome w/ damaged cells to remove the useless parts PEROXISOMES AND DETOXIFICATION  Contain oxidative enzymes and work as catalase for the cell – oxidation is used to strip hydrogen from organic molecules and detoxify waste (like alcohol)  Peroxisomes contain H 2 2hydrogen peroxide) which is toxic if it is released from the peroxisomes  Catalase: antioxidant enzyme that breaks H 2 2nto water and O i2 its released MITOCHONDIRA AND ATP PRODUCTION  Cristae: used to convert most of food into energy (ECT’s found here)  Matrix: contains numerous enzymes (used for the Krebs cycle) 1. GLYCOSIS  Glucose --> (2) 3 carbon pyruvic acid + 2 ATP (not oxygen used in this step)  Done in the cytosol (10 different steps to break down the glucose) 2. TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle)  8 step cycle – the 2 pyruvic acids enter the cycle and are broken down:  2 pyruvic acid  2 acetyl coA + CO +28 NADH + 2 FADH and 22ATP o The 2 ATP’s are the used for GDP to make GTP (in the ETC) o ADP + GTP < -- > ATP + GDP  Aerobic and found in the mitochondrial matrix  NAD: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (comes from B vit niacin)  FAD: flavine adenine dinucleotide (comes from B vit riboflavin) 3. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN  NADH and FADH are 2sed in the ETC for the H atom2 and there electrons; the molecules are carried through the chain and come out as NAD and FAD so they can be reused in the Krebs Cycle again  Electrons go through a CHAIN of rxns so they go to lower energy levels w/ each step (this way ATP can be created) (75% of energy released is as heat)  Steps to ETC are known as the chemiosmotic mechanism
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