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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2011
Olivier Birot

Chapter 1 The Foundation of PhysiologyIntroduction to PhysiologyHuman physiology study of body functionExercise physiology the study of how the structures and functions of our bodies are altered when exposed to both acute short term and chronic long term sessions of exercise and or recreational physical activityExercise disrupts homeostasis o Has positive effects on the structure and function of the human bodyAnatomy study of body structureStructure and FunctionStructure and function are related o Ex heart is shaped in a way the allows it to receive and pump blood efficiently o Ex teeth shaped in order to better tear and grind foodLevels of Organization in the BodyChemical level o Atomsthe smallest building blocks of life99 of the body is made up of oxygen carbon hydrogen and nitrogenThe other 1calcium phosphorus potassium o Atoms combine to make molecules proteins carbs fats nucleic acids aka DNACellular level o Nonliving chemical components much be arranged in a precise way to form a living entity o Cells are the basic units of lifeContents of each cell is enclosed by the plasma membrane Controls movement of materials into and out of the cell o Organisms independent living entitiesSimplestsinglecelled ex bacteria amoebas o In multicellular organisms cells differentiate become specialized to carry out a particular functionBasic cell functions o Obtain nutrients and oxygen from surrounding environment o Perform chemical reactions that provide energy for the cellFoodoxygencarbon dioxidewaterenergy o Eliminate carbon dioxide and other wastes to surrounding environment o Synthesize needed cellular components o Control exchange of materials between cell and its surrounding environment o Some cells move around the body delivering messages andor performing functions o ReproductionException nerve and muscle cells lose their ability to reproduce during their early developmentIn multicellular organisms each cell also performs a specialized cell function
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