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KINE 2031 (13)
Neil Smith (13)
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Skeletal Locations.docx
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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course
KINE 2031
Professor
Neil Smith
Semester
Winter

Description
NOTE: Words in brackets are what is written in the manual AXIAL SKELETON Frontal Bone: (Forehead) Cranial bone that surrounds and protects the brain from the front Parietal bones: Cranial bones that cover much of the top and sides of the brain (behind frontal  left and right suture between parietal bones and frontal) Temporal Bones: Related to the temple - Mastoid Process: A large rounded protrusion located lateral to the styloid process and posterior to the eternal acoustic meatus; serves as an attachment point for several of the muscles that move the neck - Mastoid Process - Mandibular Fossa  head of mandible - Jugular Foramen  internal jugular vein, cranial nerves 9,10,11 - Carotid Canal  internal carotid artery Occipital Bone: Concerning the back of the head. The occipital bone is the cranial bone that surrounds and protects that back part of the brain - Foramen magnum: A large hole located along interior surface of the bone; forms a passageway for the spinal cord to exit the skull. (vertebral artery, spinal cord) - Occipital Condyle: Prominent, rounded elevation located to the side of the foramen magnum; articulates with the superior articular facet of the atlas (1 ) vertebra - External Occipital Protuberance: A small elevation in the middle of the superior nuchal line; serves as an attachment point for the trapezius muscle (ligamentum nuchae) Sphenoid Bone: Is a large bone located in the middle of the skull between the frontal and temporal bones. It primary consists of a centrally positioned body and two sets of greater and lesser wings that extend laterally to the sides of the skull. As one of the cranial bones, it surrounds and protects the brain (looks like a butterfly) - Sella turcica: a combination of structures along the superior surface of the sphenoid body that form the protective, bony housing around the hypophysis or pituitary gland; together these structures look like a sadldle (pituitary gland) Ethmoid bone: Irregular shaped cranial bone found at the top of the nasal cavity; bony projections from the ethmoid extend into the nasal cavity, orbits and cranium (perpendicular plate... nasal septum) FACIAL Mandible: Head: (see mandibular fossa) - Coranoid Process: Sharply angled anteriorextension of the ramus - Ramus: vertical portion of the bone - Body: Horseshoe shaped portion of the bone - Alveolar Process (teeth): Contains sockets (alveoli) for the teeth - Angle: Region of bone where the ramus and body join Maxilla: - Alveolar Process: Inferior extension that contains the sockets (alveoli) for the teeth) - Zygomatic: Is the facial bone that forms the cheekbone - Nasal: small bones that form the bridge of the nose - Palatine: Two L-shaped palatines are the facial bones that form the posterior floor of the nasal cavity (hard palate – makes up part of the roof of your mouth) - Vomer: a thin, plow-shaped bone; joins with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone to form the bony septum that divides the nasal cavity into right and left halves (nasal spetum) - Lacrimal: Depression at the junction of the lacrimal and maxilla bones that holds that lacrimal sac; tears formed by the sac drain through a duct into the nasal cavity (groove for lacrimal sac) SUTURES: Lateral view: - Coronal: junction between frontal and parietal bones - Lambdoidal: junction between the parietal bones and occipital bone (outlines occipital) - Squamosal: junction between the parietal and temporal bones (outlines temporal) - Sagittal: junction between the two parietal bones Vertebral Column: Typical Vertebra: - Body: cylindrical mass at the anterior base of the vertebral (neutral) arch that is designed to withstand vertical compression. This is the region of bone where adjacent vertebrae stack on top of another - Pedicle: (from body to transverse process) - Transverse Process: prominent lateral projections; serves at an attachment point for muscles that control neck movement. - Lamina: Flattened portion of the vertebral (neutral) arch (from transverse process to spinous process) - Spinous Process: Narrow posterior projection from the junction of the laminae (points towards the back) - Vertabral Foramen (spinal cord): large opening in the center of the bone; passageway for the spinal cord - Superior articulating surface: smooth surfaces for articulation with the inferior articular surface on the vertebra above - Inferior articular surface: smooth surfaces for articulation with the superior articular surface on the vertebra below - (Intervertebral foramina): spinal nerve to exit Cervical Vertebrae (7) – info in manual is good Dens or Odontoid process: prominent superior projection from the body region; serves a stable point around which the atlas (1 ) rotates Thoracic vertebrae (12): - Demifacets: small depression Sacrum: - Sacral Canal: a channel that runs through the interior of the sacrum; forms a passageway for the spinal cord - Median Crest: a small ridge composed of the fused spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae - Sacral hiatus: a triangular gap in the bone located at the inferior tip of the median sacral crest; forms an inferior opening through which the inferior spinal nerves exits Ribs: - Head: the medioposterior end of the bone; area of articulation with the facets and demifacets of the thoracic vertebrae (articulates with vertebrae) - Angle: the area of shaft with the greatest curvature - Tubercle: small elevation found posterior and lateral to the head; area of articulation with the transverse process of the vertebra Sternum: - Manubrium: the superior bone (the top part) - Body: (middle portion) - Xiphoid process: the inferior bone (the bottom part) Clavicle: - Sternal end: the triangular shaped, medial surface that articulates with the sternum. Use this marking as a landmark to identify the medial side of this bone - Acromial end: the flattened, lateral surface that articulates with the acromion of the scapula. Use this marking as a landmark to identify the lateral side of this bone Scapula: - Spine: Long, prominent ridge that runs diagonally across upper posterior surface of bone; serves as attachment point for trapezius and deltoid muscles.(ridge across back) - Supraspinous fossa: slightly depressed area superior to spine; serves as attachment point for supraspinatus muscle (above spine) - Infraspinous fossa: area inferior to spine; serves as attachment point for infraspinatus muscle (backside below spine) - Subscapular fossa: the slightly depressed region found in the middle of the anterior side of the scapula; serves as an attachment point for the subscapularis muscle. (anterior side, fits against rib cage) - Acromion process: a lateral, fan-like extension of the spine; serves as an attachment point for the trapezius and deltoid muscles. (point sticking off) - Glenoid fossa: Smooth, concave surface located at the lateral angle of the scapula; area or articulation with the head of the humerus. (part of ball and socket) - Coracoid process: a promident, curved projection located along the superior margin; serves as an attachment point for the biceps brachii, coracobrachialis, and pectoralis minor muscles. (hook) - Superior angle: a sharp curvature formed at the junction of the superior and medial margins; serves as an attachment point for the levator scapula muscle - Inferior angle: the sharp curvature formed at the junction of the medial and lateral margins; serves as an attachment point for the teres major muscle - Lateral angle:... possibly border according to bodysmart: lateral edge of bone; serves as attachment point teres minor muscle Humerus: - Head: a large rounded, smooth surface that projects medially from the proximal end; area of articulation with the glenoid fossa of the scapula - Anatomical neck: region of between the head and tubercles where the width of the bone narrows slightly - Greater tubercle: a large, roughened area located on the proximal end of the bone, lateral to the head; serves as an attachment point for the pectoralis major, supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor muscles - Lesser tubercle: a roughened area located on the anterior surface medial to the greater tubercle; serves as an attachment point for the subscapularis muscle - Intertubercular (bicipital) groove: a narrow depression found between the greater and lesser tubercles; serves as a passageway for the tendon of the lonf head of the biceps brachii and as an attachment point for the teres major and latissimus dorsi muscles - Deltoid tuberosity: a roughened, raised surface located approximately in the middle o
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