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KINE 2031 (13)
Neil Smith (13)
Chapter 2

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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course
KINE 2031
Professor
Neil Smith
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2: Cell physiology 1. cytoplasm The portion of the cell interior not occupied by the nucleus (p. 24) 2. nucleus (of A distinct spherical or oval structure that is usually located near the centre of a cell and that cells) contains the cells genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (p. 24) 3. adenosine The two-phosphate product formed from the splitting of ATP to yield energy for the cells use diphosphate (p. 24) 4. adenosine The bodys common energy currency, which consists of an adenosine with three phosphate triphosphate groups attached; splitting of the high-energy, terminal phosphate bond provides energy to (ATP) power cellular activities (p. 24) 5. ADP The two-phosphate product formed from the splitting of ATP to yield energy for the cells use (p. 24) 6. aerobic Referring to a condition in which oxygen is available (p. 31) 7. anabolic Anabolic processes are those that favour the synthesis of molecules for building up organs and tissues. (p. 24) 8. anabolism The buildup, or synthesis, of larger organic molecules from the small organic molecular subunits (p. 24) 9. anaerobic Referring to a condition in which oxygen is not present (p. 31) 10. ATP The bodys common energy currency, which consists of an adenosine with three phosphate groups attached; splitting of the high-energy, terminal phosphate bond provides energy to power cellular activities (p. 24) + 11. ATP synthase Converts ADP P toiATP, providing a rich yield of 32 more ATP molecules for each glucose molecule thus processed (p. 29) 12. cellular The metabolic reactions and processes by which living organisms (cells) convert biochemical respiration energy (e.g., glucose) from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for energy; see also internal respiration (p. 29) 13. chemiosmotic A four-step process that collectively harnesses the energy stored in the H gradient across mechanism the inner mitochondrial membrane to synthesize ATP (p. 29) 14. citric acid cycle A cyclic series of biochemical reactions that involves the further processing of intermediate breakdown products of nutrient molecules, resulting in the generation of carbon dioxide and the preparation of hydrogen carrier molecules for entry into the high-energy-yielding electron transport chain (p. 27) 15. creatine kinase An enzyme expressed by various tissues and cell types; CK catalyzes the conversion of creatine and ATP to phosphocreatine (p. 26) 16. creatine A phosphorylated creatine molecule that acts as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphate phosphates in skeletal muscle and brain tissues (p. 26) 17. electron transport Consists of electron carrier molecules located in the inner mitochondrial membrane lining the chain cristae. The high-energy electrons are extracted from the hydrogens held in NADH and FADH a2d are transferred through a series of steps from one electron-carrier molecule to another, within the cristae membrane, in a kind of assembly line (p. 29) 18. flavine adenine dinucleotide Redox cofactor involved in several important metabolic reactions (p. 27) (FAD) 19. glycolysis A biochemical process that takes place in the cells cytosol and involves the breakdown of glucose into two pyruvic acid molecules (p. 26) 20. grand Represents spatial or temporal summation of many small potentials. Temporal and spatial postsynaptic summation dictated by the rates of firing of many presynaptic neurons jointly control the potential (GPSP) (grand) membrane potential in the body of a single postsynaptic cell (p. 27)21. guanosine diphosphate A nucleotide sugar that is a substrate for glycosyltransferase reaction in metabolism (p. 29) (GDP) 22. guanosine A high-energy molecule similar to ATP; the energy from GTP is then transferred to ATP (p. triphosphate 29) (GTP) 23. Krebs cycle Consists of a series of eight separate biochemical reactions that are directed by the enzymes of the mitochondrial matrix, a series of biochemical reactions (p. 27) 24. nicotinamide adenine Coenzyme found in all living cells; involved in metabolism, carrying electrons from one dinucl+otide reaction to another (p. 27) (NAD ) 25. oxidative The entire sequence of mitochondrial biochemical reactions that uses oxygen to extract phosphorylation energy from the nutrients in food and transforms it into ATP, producing carbon dioxide and water in the process (p. 29) 26. tricarboxylic acid The second stage of cellular respiration, the three-stage process by which living cells break cycle (TCA cycle) down organic fuel molecules in the presence of oxygen (p. 27) 27. cadherins Connective tissue fibres that interlace on the surface of adjacent cells and interlock in zipper fashion to help hold the cells within tissues and organs together (p. 35) 28. CAMs Proteins that serve as cell adhesion molecules. They protrude from the outer membranes surface and form loops or hooks that the cells use to grip each other and to grasp the connective tissue fibres that interlace between cells. (p. 35) 29. carrier molecules Membrane proteins, which, by undergoing reversible changes in shape so that specific binding sites are alternately exposed at either side of the membrane, can bind with and transfer particular substances unable to cross the plasma membrane on their own (p. 35) 30. cell adhesion Proteins that protrude from the surface of the plasma membrane and form loops or other molecules (CAMs) appendages that the cells use to grip one another and the surrounding connective tiss
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