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Chapter Final

Final Review This includes notes taken for chapters 1-11... minus chapter 12 and the other really basic straightforward ones.

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2050
Merv Mosher

o CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION 11 Why Learn StatisticsWhat does science consist of and what are the main operations that scientists perform in all disciplines The answer is Observationo The essential event in any observation is being able to accurately gather measurements which result in sets of numerical data Scientists observe in order to understand the relations between events and also to discover the laws that govern natural phenomena o Statistics is a methodology for extracting information and making meaning out of numbers and then being able to make decisions about the numbers and information It is the intermediary between what is observed and what can be concluded about how natural events operate12 What Is StatisticsWe use statistical methods for two main purposes 1 Description and 2 Inference 1 Descriptive Statistics This consists of techniques for organizing summarizing and extracting information from gathered numerical data Usually this is found in graphical form Descriptive procedures are quite basic to understanding data and constitute the first stage of analysis2 Inferential Statistics This involves generalizing the findings beyond the immediate observations Inferential statistics is the body of rules and procedures by which general statements are made about people or events based on the observation of a relative few Overall Statistics may be defined as the body of rules and procedures for evaluating and making decisions about the outcome of scientific observation 13 How To Learn StatisticsThe point of Statistics is to make decisions and not to manipulate number as an end in itself14 CalculatorsComputers o Statistics programs fall into 2 categories 1 Dedicated Statistical Applications There are many dedicated statistical applications such as SAS SPSS and INSTAT and 2 Spreadsheets Microsoft Excel CHAPTER 2DATA Review Exercises22 Review Exercises1 Define or describe the following termsa Population A population consists of all the organisms objects or events of a specified type Population membership must be clearly defined so that it can be clear who and who is not included in that population b Sample A sample is any subgroup or subset of a population Usually populations are so large that it is impractical to observe all the members of the population so scientists often randomly chose members of the population that represent the population and this is termed a samplec Parameter A parameter is a numerical term that summarizes or describes a populationd Statistic A statistic is a numerical term that summarizes or describes a sample e Datum Any particular observation such as an individuals height is termed datum It is the singular form of dataf Raw Data Observations that are recorded and gathered together These observations and measures have NOT been manipulated in any wayg Variable A variable is any observablemeasurable characteristic of organisms objects or events such that individuals may differ in amount or kind of this property h Quantitative Variable A quantitative variable is a variable in which the number obtained from the measurement reflects the amount of the property in question ex Length height and weighti Qualitative Variable A qualitative variable is a distinction of kind and NOT amount ex Male or Female and Hair Colourj Continuous Variable A continuous variable is one that may assume any value between maximum and minimum limits With a continuous variable the value can become more and more precise ex Height saying you are 53 is more precise than you simply stating that you are 5 feet tallk Discrete Variable A discrete variable is one that can only assume certain numerical values ex How many siblings you have You cannot have 23 siblings it must be a whole number2 Identify the following variables or measures as being either quantitative or qualitativea Colour of Barbaras eyes Qualitative b Heart Rate Quantitative c Catholic Qualitative d Reaction Time Quantitative e Pupil Dilation Both f Hungarian Qualitative g Crop Yield Quantitative h Paranoid Schizophrenic Qualitative3 Identify the following variables or measures as being either continuous or discretea Body Temperature Continuous b Atmospheric Pressure Continuous c Income Tax Bracket Discrete not completely sure d Sales Resistance Continuous e Number of books in the library Discrete f Amount of money in your pocket Discrete g Lung Capacity Continuous23 Review Exercises1 Define or describe the following termsa Objective An objective observation is one that is not in any way affected by the opinions values or biases of the observer ex When you go home you tell your parents that your statistics professor has a mustache This is objective because anyone who was there would report the same thingb Subjective A subjective observation is one that reflects the observers personal point of view clearly there can be no science if the raw data are based on opinion ex You believe your statistics professor is hard but hard depends on your views of what is hard This will change depending on each and every persons views of difficultyc Empirical Event An empirical event is one which may be perceived by our senses including any extension of them in form of detection andor recording device Science is an empirical enterprise because it deals with observable events and because its findings are based on objective observations rather than subjective ones d Operational Definition An operational definition of a variable specifics the manner of measurement of the variable There are essential in science because they are a means by which we can achieve precision in our communication and objectivity of our data ex Speed can be described as fast or slow but that would be subjective By defining a speed by kmhr or mhr there would be no misunderstanding about how speed was measured and the value would not change depending on who is making the measurements2 Which of the following are operational definitionsa Popularity No b Number of times Brenda is asked to dance Yes c Anxiety No d Height Yes e Score on LQ Test Yes f Degree of addiction to caffeine No
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