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Chapter 1-3

Summaries Chapters 1-3

10 Pages

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 3000
Gerry Goldberg

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Chapter 1 Psychology - The science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems. William Wundt - Founder of Psychology/Structuralism - Established first formal laboratory at University of Leipzig (EdwarTitchener) -Primary focus was on consciousness and awareness of immediate experience G. Stanley Hall - First American Psychological President -Established first American laboratory at John Hopkins University William James - Functionalist: Consciousness consists of continuous flows of thought (Stream of Consciousness) Margaret Floy Washburn- First female woman in the U.S.A. to receive Ph.D in psychology Mary Whilton Calkins- First woman to serve as president of APA. Two Major Schools of Thought Structuralism - Analyze consciousness into basic elements and investigate relationships of elements Introspection - Careful, systematic self-observation of one's own conscious mind -Exposure to auditory tones and visual stimuli under controlled systems -Became the demise of structuralisms Functionalism - Investigation of the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure. -How people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world around them - Modern psychology known as: Behaviourism and Applied Psychology John B. Watson - Behaviourism Behaviourism - Fact that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour - Proposed that psychologist abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviour -Personal mental process were not a proper subject for scientific study because no one could see or touch another's though -Behaviour- any observable response or activity by an organism - Nature vs. Nurture: Watson believe one was made and not born -Believed view of psychology was S-R psychology - Experimenters need to exert considerable control over subject Sigmund Freud - Unconscious Psychoanalysis - attempts to explain personality, motivation, and theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour. - Behaviour is greatly influenced by how people cope with sexual urges - Very controversial but gained influence very slowly B. F. Skinner - Behaviourism - Developed system based on radical behaviourism - Did not deny existence of internal mental events but redefined them as private events - Psychology could understand and predict behaviour adequately without resorting to physiological explanations - Free Will is an illusion Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow - Humanist Revolt -Behaviour is governed primarily by each individual's sense of self. - Basic need to evolve as human beings and fulfill their potential Psychology in Canada - James Mark Baldwin established first British Empire Laboratory at University of Toronto 1891 - Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) formed in 1939 - Brenda Miller contributed to understanding of memory and founder of neuropsychoolgy - Donald Hebb contributed to the functions of neurons. Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession - Clinical, counselling, school, health, industrial/organizational Applied Psychology - Concerns of everyday, practical problems Clinical Psychology - Concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders (WWII) - Clinical, counselling, educational, industrial Cognition - Mental processes involved with acquiring knowledge - Jean Piaget - children's development - Must study internal mental events to fully understand behaviour - Manipulation of mental images influence behaviour. Focusing only on overt behaviours yields an incomplete picture of individuals. Investigation of problem solving have shown that methods can be devised to study cognitive processes scientifically - James Old - Electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage - Donald Hebb - Repeated stimulation leads to development of cell assembles. Psychology Broadens Its Horizons Ethnocentrism - Tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judgement Evolutionary Psychology - Behavioural processes in terms of adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations (Natural Selection) -Males better in visual-spatial task, while female are better in facilitated gathering (memory) Positive Psychology - Positive psychology uses theory and research to better understand positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence - Experience -> Traits -> Institution Seven Major Research Areas: Developmental, Social, Experimental, Physiological, Cognitive, Personality, Psychometrics 1) Medical Degree -> Psychiatrist 2) Ph.D., Ed.D., Psy.D. -> Clincal Psychologist Themes of Psychology 1) Empirical 2) Theoretically Diverse 3) Evolves in Sociohistorical Context 4) Behaviour is Determined by Multiple Causes 5) Behaviour is Shaped by Cultural heritage 6) Heredity and Environmental Jointly Influence Behaviour 7) Experience of the World is Highly Subjective Chapter 2 Goals of Scientific Enterprise 1. Measurement and Description - Commitment to observation for investigator 2. Understanding and Prediction - Testing hypothesis: Statement about the relationship between two or more variables: any measurable conditions, events, or behaviour in controlled or observed in a study. 3. Application and Control - Understanding of phenomenon creates theory: System of interrelated idea used to explain a set of observation. -Theory helps description to understanding behaviour - Must be tested empirically to be scientific - If testing supports hypothesis, confidence in theory grows - If testing fails to support hypothesis, confidence in theory diminishes and is discarded or revised. - Scientific theories are systematic Steps in a Scientific Investigation Step 1 – Formulate a Testable Hypothesis - Formulas achieved through operational definition Step 2 – Select the Research Method and Design the Study Step 3 – Collect the Data Step 4 – Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions - Statistics to analysis data Step 5 – Report the Findings - Advantageous: 1) permits conclusions about cause-effect relationships between variables Disadvantage: 1) experiments artificial, 2) can’t be used to explore research questions (ethical issues) Advantage of Scientific Approach 1) Clarity & Precision - Enhances communication of important ideas 2) Relative intolerance of error Operational definition – actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable Independent variable – condition or event that changes to see its impact on another variable Dependant variable – variable thought to be affected by manipulation of independent variable Extraneous variable – variable that isn’t independent variable, seems likely to influence dependent variable Experimental group – subjects who receive special treatment in regard to independent variable Cofounding variables – two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort their specific effects Random assignment – all subjects have equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in study -Sometimes advantageous to use only one group of subjects who serve as their own control group -Possible to manipulate more than one independent variable in single experiment -Possible to use more than one dependent variable in single study Descriptive/correlation research methods – investigations to only describe behavior and discover links or associations between variables (broadens the scope of phenomena) Advantage – explore questions that can’t be answered with experimental procedures (broadens scope that psychologists can study) Disadvantage – cannot control or isolate cause/effect (cannot show conclusively that two variables are casually related) Naturalistic Observation - Engages in careful observations of behavior without intervening directly with the research of the subject. Case study – in-depth investigation of an individual subject (victims of suicide = psychological autopsies) Survey - Questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific goals (Self-report) Variability – how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and the mean Standard deviation – index of amount of variability in a data set -Variability increase, standard deviation will increase, and vice versa Percentile - Score indicates the % of people who score at or below a particular score Correlation – two variables are related to each other Correlation coefficient – numerical index of degree of relationship between two variables Positive correlation – two variables co-vary in same direction (eg. High scores on X are associated to Y) Negative correlation – two variables co-vary in opposite directions (must have minus sign in front) -Size of coefficient shows strength of association between two variables (near 0 = no relationship, closer to +1.00 or -1.00, stronger the relationship -Correlation increases in strength, ability to predict one variable based on knowledge of the other variable increases Inferential statistics – used to interpret data and draw conclusions Statistical significance – probability that observed findings are due to chance is very low (5/100) Meta-Analysis - Combination of statistical results of many studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size and consistancy of variable effects Placebo effect – participants expectations lead them to experience change though they received empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment Social desirable bias – tendency to give socially acceptable answers when asked questions Response set – responds to questions in an unrelated way to the question Double blind procedure – both subjects and experimenters don’t know which are experimental or control groups Anecdotal evidence – personal stories, specific incidents, experienced Ethics Deception is immoral and may undermine participants trust in others. Principle I - Respect for the Dignity of Persons Principle II - Responsible Caring Principle III -Integrity in Relationships Principle IV - Responsibility to Society Chapter 3 Neurons - Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integration and transmit information. Soma - Cell body that contains the nucleus and much of the chemical machinery Dendrites - Parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information Axon - Long, thin fiber that transmit signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin Sheath - Insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons. Speeds up the transmission of signals that move along axons. Terminal Button - Small knobs that secret neurotransmitters. Synapse - Junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. Glia - Found throughout the nervous system that provides various types of support for neurons - 10:1 against neurons -Accounts for over 50 % of brain volume. -Supply nourishments to neurons, help remove neuron waste products, and provide insulation around many axons. May send and receive chemical messages. -May play role in memory formation -Crucial role in chronic bill Resting Potential - Stable, negative charge when cell is inactive -Higher concentration of negative ions inside the cells Action Potential - Brief shift in neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon Absolute Refractory Period - Minimum length of time after an action potential during which action potential cannot begin (1-2ms) followed by relative refractory period -Neuron can fire, but the threshold for firing is elevated, so more intense simulation is required to initiate an action potential All-or-None Law - Either fires or doesn't, action potentials are all the same size. - Convey information about strength of stimulus by varying the rate they fire AP
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