Chapter 1 Introducing Sport and Exercise Psychology - Chapter 4

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3000
Peter Landstreet

Chapter 1 Introducing Sport and Exercise Psychology - Profession to help young athletes need to know how psychological factors may influence performance + motivation, intervention skills to design + implement an effective intervention - For example someone who is experiencing anxiety, the consultant may need to know relationship between different types of anxiety + self confidence, different strategies to deal with anxiety and how to put it into practice - Myths: only athletes w/serious mental problems need sport/exercise psychologist and that all sport psychologist work w/elite athletes to enhance sport performance Introduction - Sport + exercise are iimportant in Canadian life  Complex w/many subdiscipline - Sport + exericese psyc has gained national creditions especially in discipline of Kineisiology as core subject to be covered Nature of Sport + Exercise Psychology - Most university suggest it is branch of sport science that involves scientific study of human behavior in sport + practical application of knowledge insport - Others say it is science in which pricniples of psychology are applied in sport/exercise setting - Majority of theories is dominated by field of psychology - Includes cognitive, clinical, counselling, physiological, social, developmental, health psychology Positive Psychology in Sport + Exercise - Common belief S + E forucses on abnormal/problematic behavior due to medical model to reduce/eliminate pathological mental behavior - Seligman criticized psychology for focusing too much on mental illness rather than human side of strength + personal growth  Positive psychology can be subjective experience; well being, satisfaction, fulfilliment, pleasure, happiness  How does support of team help people to thrive, playing on team contribute to self acceptance - Most of S + E directed to enhancing performance, social, physical well being, positive emotion - Peake performance is about psychological, physical, emotional strength - Research devoted to optimistic disposition, flow states, enjoyment, satisfaction, growth, challenge Careers in S + E psychology - Increase awareness of S + E, teaching basic principles of S + E psychology, helping athletes to develop + psychological skills to enhance performance/working w/clients to enhance exercise behavior + well being - Research to describe predict, explain cognition, emotion under ethnical guidelines  In presentations for discussion about strengths + limitations of theories, methods, pardigms - Consulting: helping ind, team optimize performance, change PA behavior, manage sport + life demands, enhance well being  Canadian uni don’t use sport psychologist on limited basis  Also in fitness industry, rehabilitation, business community  Education, counselling, clinical Standards of conduct + practioner competencies in S + E psychology - Ethics is matters of right and wrong as they relate to human behavior  Nature, terms, parameters of relationship btwn consultant + client  At best assist athletes and at worst do no harm - Principle 1: respect for dignity of persons: regardless of culture, religion, gener, marital status, sexuality and extent to confidentiality + freedom to consent for consulting services - Principle 2: responsible caring: weighs cost + benefits of various methods to mini harm and max benefits - Principle 3: integrity in relationship: upheld thru self knowledge + critical analysis - Principle 4 responsibility to society: pratise of freedom of inquiry + debate, caring for athlete is priority and must not violate by attempts to benefit society Chapter 2 Research Perspective in S + E psychology - Myths:  Research is defined by goals of activity or undertaking  Experimentation is only way to advance S + E psychology reaserch  Qualitative research methods aren’t as rigorous as quantitative research methods Introduction: - International competition reinforced dominant role of science in high performance sport  Enhancement and utilization of better equipment/facitlies - Argument of whether science and research has role in health promotion services Science and Scientific Research - Science is dynamic yet imperfect process of knowledge accumulation thru research - Basic research is testing fundamental mech that produce conditions w/o concern for practical utility - Applied research focuses on generating solution to immediate rpblems - Intuition is development of implicit understanding of phenomena of interest in absence of formal training - Tradition is knowledge that is historically rooted w/no emphases on current info - Authorities are expert whose opinions are considered final words in knowledge acquisition - Logic involves knowledge generated thru application of formal rules of reasoning to problem in question , derived inductively or deductively - Scientific method is series of steps executed to generate knowledge, but often disagreed upon the level of objectivity and total steps needed  Common ones are identification of research problem, formation of hypothesis, collection + analysis of data and integration of conclusion w/direction for additional study  Research wants to predict or explain phenomena - Descriptive research: in-depth portrayal of phenomenon of interest  Example: study to describe athletes use of imagery in sport - Predictive research: establish directional relationship  Changes in physical self perceptions and health related behaviros in adolescent girls over 3 year period - Research eventual goal is develop theory: interconnected set of concepts explaining how and why discrete phenomena work tgt Basic Reaserch Terminolgoy - Nomothetic is attempt to isolate rules + obs that pertain to most cases on most occasions - Idiographic is special/unique cases that doesn’t apply to most ppl on most occasion - Null hypothesis: no relationship btwn variables under study and no difference anticipated btwn groups receiving diff conditions of independent variables - Alternative/reseach hypothesis: educated guess regarding what they expect to find - Casual: implied releationship btwn independent/dependent variable  Proposed cause must be correlated w/observed effect  Proposed cause must precede effect or must be evidence of what methodologist refer to temporal precedence  All other possible extraneous variable must be systematically ruled out - Research ethics board: ensures research is conducted in manner that protects the integrity + safety of participants and researchers  Anonymity: inability to identify participant involved in reaserch project  Confidentiality: retention of all participant date in confidence so ind data is not identifiable by others  Informed consent: participants fully informed of rights + responsibilities and how they will be treated in experiement - Beneficence: degree to which proposed research max potential benefits while min possible harm  Doesn’t guarantee participants face no risk given non invasive reaserch carriers risk of disclosure - Justice: selection of participants should be those who derive benefits from results of study Basic Measurement Concepts - Psychometrics: assessment of psychological variables using numbers - Realibitliy is consistency/stability of score derived from single/multiple test  Degree of precision  Classic approach is using true score model where every observed score has 2 components:  Ture score (actual ability) and error of measurement (introduced by act of measuring variable) - Validity is extent to which scores when interpreted serve intended function  Content validity: degree to which test items are relevant/fully represent focal variable of interest  Criterion validity: degree which test scores associated w/criterion of interest (ie test measuring aggressiveness who record aggressive actions for certain period of time in atheltes)  Consequential validity: actual and potential consequence stemming from test score use - Sampling: process of selecting observation from population for purpose of research  Sample: selection of obs from large population  Population is either theoretical (all possible elements) or study (all accessible elements) Research Design - Internal validity: extent to which results can be attributed to treatment/intervention rather than design flaw - Internal validity threat: other plausible explanation for study findings  Maturation  History: influence of unsual, yet powerful external event  Selection: non random placement of particpants in group for intervention research study  Mortality: departure of participants in studies that use repeated assesments  Testing: influence of earlier test socres on later scores when test is administer on multiple occasions  Instrumentation: alterations in nature/reliability of test  Regression to mean: nature tendency of extreme scores to regress to typical population during subsequent testing  Diffusion of terament: adoption of intervention type response by partiiciplant in control group when they learn of treatment provided to other group  Resentful demoralization: resentment by participlants in control when learned treatement not applied to them - Randomized experimental designs: two hallmarks  Randomly assign participants to different conditions  Manipulation of independent variables - Quasi experiemental: attempt to unearth cuase of change in dependent variables w/o randomly assigning participants w/o randomizing  May be due to not possible, practical reasons or not desirable - Non experiemental: establish patterns of relationship in absence of group assignment/variable manipulation  Place emphasis on testing arguments derived from theory or predicting criterion variable of interest rather than on estabilsih casuality  Sometimes known as passive obs or correlational design Qualitative research in S + E psychology - Quantitative inquiry is approach that focuses on quantifying/counting amount of particular variable - Qualitative inquiry encompass set of practices which reaserch seek to understand world from perspective of those being studied  Attempt to understand insider’s view  Usually occur in naturalistic context, everyday experiences  Usually purposeful sample rather than radndommized and involves in-depth study of small number of participants - Basic interpretation qualitative studies: seek to understand particular phenomenon, perspective, perceptions through interviews, obs, documentary, examination - Phenomenology: philosophical tradition that concerns structure or essence of lived experience (phenonmenon) for ind/group of ppl  Temp put aside their preconceptions  May provide info to encourage teachers, coaches to be aware of emotional/social consequence stemming from phsycial awkwardness - Ground theory: approach where theory is developed inductively from participants data  Usually substantive rather than omnibus to explain broad phenonmenon  Localized, dealings w/particular real world situation - Case studies: intensive descriptions + analyses of single unit in terms of ind/group/intervention/event/community  Incorporate variety of disciplinary/methodologies perspective - Ethnography: study of cultureoperating w/in group/team - Narrative analysis: collect data for purpose to present story told in first person distinguish it from scientific writing of other forms  Biography, autobiography, life narratives Chapter 3 Personality in S + E - Can personality predict sport performance? - Is the uniqueness of person need to be consistent over situations or can it be different in context like school, friends, sports? - Does personality interact w/motivation - Since 1970, debate over using personality to predict sport behavior + success but dropped in 1980s b/c perceived difficulties in measuring personality + disagreement about importance of personality in sport  Psychosocial factors however still remain important: trait confidence, trait anxiety, identity, attentional style, mental toughness, hardiness, optimism, competitiveness, ego + mastery goal orientation, perfectionism, extroversion What is personality - Consistency of social behavior, thoughts + emotiosn - Overall organization of psychological characteistics: thinking, feeling, behaving differentiating us from tohers - Emphasis on individual differences - Disposition: broad, pervasive, encompassing ways of relating to particular type of ppl  In S + E it is applied to behavior, thoughts, emotions that are stable like competitiveness, optimis, motivational orientation - Most common way to describe personality is thru statistical methods to look at cluster of behaviors related/correlated: traits  Trait is portion of personality - States: momentary feeling that changes depending on situation (different than traits)  Ie someone who has perfectionism may have qualities of organized, compulsive, socially precise, controlled, self discipline but the degree of each trait varies depending on indidivual  Someone who is in aggressive state mayb e angered, compulsive at that moment due to situation such as losing goals to opposing team - Common assumption that personality is traits that are normally distributed - Two models include Cattel’s trait personality and Digman’s five factor model  Cattel propose there are 16 personality factors = source traits  Source for sport psychology in 1960, 70  Suggestion that successful athletes share certain traits  Digman suggest all ppl can be describe in 5 global factors: OCEAN  Openness to experience (opposite of close mindedness, curious)  Conscientiousness (achievement striving, self discipline)  Extroversion (assertiveness, energetic approach)  Agreeableness (compliance, positive approach toward others)  Neuroticism (feeling of tension + nervousness)  Preeminent theory but limited application  Suggesting it may be motivational variables to prediction of exercise behavior, ie conscientiousness + extroversion people are more likely to meet their intentions to exercise How does personality develop? - Different viewpoints from biological to sociocultural, 3 main described - Psychodynamics:  Grew from mvmt founded by Frued (psychoanalytic)  Key aspect that strong biolocial mechism driving motivated behavior  Suggest all behavior is interconnected + driven by unconscious forces  Id: instinctual + driving force of personality, pleasure principle  Ego: mediates ind relationship w/environment, reality principle  Superego: voice of conscient + morality, should/not principle  Ego is mediate btwn id and superego, conflict + comprise of behaviors in wants of id, defence of ego and reality of superego  Little applicate for S+ E - Humanistic psychology  Personal responsibility, human growth, personal striving, individual dignity  Self actualization is common concept: best they can be and reach their potential  Terry Orlick stress the importance to understand need + desire of athletes, respect ehri perception + dieas, view athletic participation as bigger picture  Carl Rogers: when discrepancy between self perception + experience, person may deny what is actually happening  Maslow proposed heiarchy of needs in 5 tiered triangular model  Physiological  safety need  social need  exteem need (internal: self respect + achievement or external: recognition + status)  self actualization - Cognitive behavioral approach  Some theories suggest behavior determine by interaction (reward/punishment) rather than inner dries, other say behavior is learned through experience  Skinner suggest behavior followed by reward would increase probability or recoccurence and v.v.  Rotter suggest 3 factors influence behavior: situational, generalized, reinforcement value  People motivated to seek out positive stimulation and avoid negative interation  Bandura influenced contemporary personality research, through self efficacy  Social learning theory suggesting ppl are active agents in shaping behavior thru ovservatinoal learning occurring in observing, retaining, replicating other’s behavior  Ppl can lean from reward/punishment or observing others - Leanring theories focus on situation and ind reciprocally influence each other - Strict learning behaviorist: Personality is sum of all that you do not of what you think or feel - Social learning: ppl are active agents in shaping behavior - Interactionish approach: dealing w/person-situation debate  1960 research suggest personality is weak predictor of behavior in specific situations (hence behaviorist) but in 1970 suggest that situations were equal in prediction  Endler + Magnusson’s interactionish approach was interplay btwn person + environment determining specific behavior of individual  How various traits affect behavior depending on S+E context  If you are about to win finals, you more motivated to strive harder Measurement of Personality - Projective: open ended questions providing subjective perspective, test taker not provide w/possible answer to test questions, help reveal hidden feeling/thoughts - Objective test: highly standardized that doesn’t require interpretation - Vast majority of personality based research in PA settings occurred in sport therefore have examples based on sport population - Trait measure of personality popular in S + E in objective tets Sport Specific Measures - Athletic motivation inventory: measure personality + motivation of athletes participating in competitive sport  First sport specific psychological test to be developed + measures personality traits w/in specific sport like ability to cope w/emotional stress, dedication, tratit predictive of athletic success  Correlated w/variables on 16PF (Cattells 16 personality factors)  Validty have mixed results some say those in higher level competitive have above average mental toughness, others found no correlation - Sport competition anxiety test: SCAT developed by Martens in 1971  Trait anxiety si general disposition to respond to vaiety of situation w/feeligns of concern or worry  High competitive trait anxiety has anxiety among many situations - Profile of mood states: POMS developed by McNair 1971, designed to assess sate affect in psychiatric population but popular in sport psyc  6 discrete affective states: tension anxiety, depression dejection, anger hostility, vigour, fatigue, confusion bewilderment  Score is sum minus vigour  Elite atheltes w/positive affect report iceberg profile: low on everything but vigour  Thru meta analysis however there was weak support, less than 1% athletes showed the same mood Ethical Considerations of Personality measurements - Ethical principles devised by specific organization used by members to shape professional judgment + behavior - Integrity + responsibility to protect public well being - Individual should be informed nature, how results will be used and who will have access - Use of test for team selection doesn’t have much support for validity, breaches in confidentiality and finanacial co
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