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KINE3020 questions readings 1-25.docx
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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course
KINE 3020
Professor
Merv Mosher
Semester
Winter

Description
3020 Skilled PerformanceMotor LearningQuestions for Topic 1 Reading1 What is the definition of skill Skill consists in the ability to bring about some end result with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of energy or of time and energy2 a Performing skills implies some desired environmental goal b Give an example of an environmental goal Holding a handstand in gymnastics or completing a forward pass in football3 What are 4 important features of the definition of skillFirst performing skills implies some desired environmental goal such as holding a handstand in gymnastics or completing a forward pass in football Skills are usually thought of as different from movements which do not necessarily have any particular environmental goal such as idly wiggling my little finger Of course skills consist of movements because the performer could not achieve an environmental goal without making at least one movement Second to be skilled implies meeting this performance goal this end result with maximum certainty For example last month while playing darts I made a bullseye But this by itself does not ensure that I am a skilled darts player because I have not demonstrated that I can achieve this result with any certainty Such an outcome was the result of one lucky throw in the midst of hundreds of others that were not so lucky I need to demonstrate that I can produce the skill reliably on demand without luck playing a very large role This is why people so greatly value the champion athlete who with but one chance and only seconds remaining at the end of a game makes the goal that allows the team to win Third a major feature in many skills is the minimization and thus conservation of the energy required for performance For some skills this is clearly not the goal such as in the shot put where the only goal is to throw the maximum distance But for many other skills the minimization of energy expenditure is critical allowing the marathon runner to hold an efficient pace or allowing the wrestler to save strength for the last few minutes of the match This minimumenergy notion applies to organizing the action not only so the physiological energy costs are lower but also so the psychological or mental energy required is reduced Many skills have been learned so well that the performers hardly have to pay attention to them freeing their cognitive processes for other features of the activity such as strategy in basketball or expressiveness in dance A major contributor to the efficiency of skilled performance is practice with learning and experience leading to the relatively effortless performances so admired in highly skilled peopleFinally another feature of many skills is for highly proficient performers to achieve their goals in minimum time Many sports skills have this as the only competition goal such as a swimming race Other skills are more effective if done quickly such as a boxing jab or a basketball pass Minimizing time can interact with the other skill features mentioned however Speeding up performance often results in sloppy movements that have lesscertainty in terms of achieving the environmental goal Also increased speed generates movements for which the energy costs are sometimes higher Thus understanding skills involves optimizing and balancing several skill aspects that are important to different extents in different settingsIn sum skills generally involve achieving some welldefined environmental goal by maximizing the achievement certainty minimizing the physical and mental energy costs of performance and minimizing the time used4 The minimumenergy notion is deemed to reducelower which types of energysThis minimumenergy notion applies to organizing the action not only so the physiological energy costs are lower but also so the psychological or mental energy required is reduced Many skills have been learned so well that the performers hardly have to pay attention to them freeing their cognitive processes for other features of the activity such as strategy in basketball or expressiveness in dance 5 What is the major contributor to the efficiency of a skilled performance A major contributor to the efficiency of skilled performance is practice with learning and experience leading to the relatively effortless performances so admired in highly skilled people6 What usually is a byproduct of speeding up performanceResults in sloppy movements that have less certainty in terms of achieving the environmental goalGenerates movements generating higher energy costs 7 What 3 concepts are valuable when wanting to achieve some welldefined environmental goalmaximizing the achievement certainty minimizing the physical and mental energy costs of performance and minimizing the time used 8 What 3 elements are critical to almost any skillPerceiving the relevant environmental features Deciding what to do and where and when to do it Producing organized muscular activity to generate movements9 What do the postural components provide when performing a movement support the actionsfor instance the arms of an archer need to be supported by a stable platform to shoot accurately10 What component of movement brings the body or limb to the action Three major kinds of components involved in the production of many skillsPostural components provide a platform to support the actions Body transport components bring the body or limb to the action
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