1. What is the difference between learning and performance?
- Performance: the behavioral act of performing a skill at a specific time
and in a specific situation
- Learning: a change in the capability of a person to perform a skill; it must
be inferred from a relatively permanent improvement in performance as a
result of practice or experience
-Observable behavior -Inferred from performance
-Temporary -Relatively permanent
-May not be due to practice -Due to practice
-May be influenced by performance -Not influenced by performance variables
2. What does the term performance refer to in the case of a observing a
performance of the skill of hitting a ball?
- The execution of a skill at a specific time and in a specific situation
3. Give an example, in sport, when someone has learned something?
- When a basketball player can may free throws repeatedly from a
4. (a) What contributes to whether or not a person actually performs a skill in a
way that is consistent with his or her potential?
- Performance variables
(b) Give an example of this.
- Alertness of the person, the anxiety created by the situation, the
uniqueness of the setting, fatigue…
5. (a) What are the 4 observable performance characteristics as skill learning
- Improvement, consistency, persistence, adaptability
(b) Briefly explain the underlying concepts of each
- Improvement: the person performs at a higher level of skill at some later
time than at some previous time
- Consistency: from one performance attempt to another a person’s
performance characteristics should become more similar
- Persistence: as the person progresses in learning the skill, the improved
performance capability lasts over increasing periods of time
- Adaptability: something is different every time we perform a skill
(c) What happens to each as learning progresses?
- Improvement: performance of the skill shows improvement over a period
- Consistency: performance becomes increasingly more consistent - Persistence: the improved performance capability is marked by an
increasing amount of persistence
- Adaptability: the improved performance is adaptable to a variety of
performance context characteristics
6. What is one way we can assess learning?
- To record levels of a performance measure during the period of time a
person practices a skill
7. What is a performance curve?
- A line graph describing performance in which the level of achievement of
a performance measure is plotted for a specific sequence of time (e.g.
seconds, minutes, days) or trials; the units of the performance measure are
on the y-axis and the time units or trials are on the x-axis
8. Shooting a free throw in basketball is an example of what type of skill?
- Closed skills
9. Give 4 difference situations where the demand for adaptability increases
when hitting a baseball.
- Various types, speeds, and locations of pitches
- Various ball-and-strike counts
- Various people-on-base situations with various numbers of outs
- Left-handed and right-handed pitchers
10. What are the 4 general types of performance curve trends?
- Linear curve
- Negatively accelerated curve
- Positively accelerated curve
- Ogive or S-shaped curve
11. Which curve would represent an increase in performance over time?
- Linear curve
12. Give a scenario when a combination of the curves would occur in
- Ogive or s-shaped curve
13. What does a downward slope of the graph represent?
- Indicates performance improvement
14. What can influence a type of performance curve that characterize a person’s
performance as he or she learns a skill?
- Various individual, instructional and motor skill characteristics
15. What do kinematic measures involve? - Performance over time within a trial
16. How would one determine improvement in performance?
- Compare the early to the later practi