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Topic 5 & 6.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3020
Merv Mosher

Topic 5: 1. What is the difference between learning and performance? - Performance: the behavioral act of performing a skill at a specific time and in a specific situation - Learning: a change in the capability of a person to perform a skill; it must be inferred from a relatively permanent improvement in performance as a result of practice or experience Performance Learning -Observable behavior -Inferred from performance -Temporary -Relatively permanent -May not be due to practice -Due to practice -May be influenced by performance -Not influenced by performance variables variables 2. What does the term performance refer to in the case of a observing a performance of the skill of hitting a ball? - The execution of a skill at a specific time and in a specific situation 3. Give an example, in sport, when someone has learned something? - When a basketball player can may free throws repeatedly from a stationary position 4. (a) What contributes to whether or not a person actually performs a skill in a way that is consistent with his or her potential? - Performance variables (b) Give an example of this. - Alertness of the person, the anxiety created by the situation, the uniqueness of the setting, fatigue… 5. (a) What are the 4 observable performance characteristics as skill learning takes place? - Improvement, consistency, persistence, adaptability (b) Briefly explain the underlying concepts of each - Improvement: the person performs at a higher level of skill at some later time than at some previous time - Consistency: from one performance attempt to another a person’s performance characteristics should become more similar - Persistence: as the person progresses in learning the skill, the improved performance capability lasts over increasing periods of time - Adaptability: something is different every time we perform a skill (c) What happens to each as learning progresses? - Improvement: performance of the skill shows improvement over a period of time - Consistency: performance becomes increasingly more consistent - Persistence: the improved performance capability is marked by an increasing amount of persistence - Adaptability: the improved performance is adaptable to a variety of performance context characteristics 6. What is one way we can assess learning? - To record levels of a performance measure during the period of time a person practices a skill 7. What is a performance curve? - A line graph describing performance in which the level of achievement of a performance measure is plotted for a specific sequence of time (e.g. seconds, minutes, days) or trials; the units of the performance measure are on the y-axis and the time units or trials are on the x-axis 8. Shooting a free throw in basketball is an example of what type of skill? - Closed skills 9. Give 4 difference situations where the demand for adaptability increases when hitting a baseball. - Various types, speeds, and locations of pitches - Various ball-and-strike counts - Various people-on-base situations with various numbers of outs - Left-handed and right-handed pitchers 10. What are the 4 general types of performance curve trends? - Linear curve - Negatively accelerated curve - Positively accelerated curve - Ogive or S-shaped curve 11. Which curve would represent an increase in performance over time? - Linear curve 12. Give a scenario when a combination of the curves would occur in performance? - Ogive or s-shaped curve 13. What does a downward slope of the graph represent? - Indicates performance improvement 14. What can influence a type of performance curve that characterize a person’s performance as he or she learns a skill? - Various individual, instructional and motor skill characteristics 15. What do kinematic measures involve? - Performance over time within a trial 16. How would one determine improvement in performance? - Compare the early to the later practi
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