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Chapter 11

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3340
Nickolas Wattie

Chapter 11 Voluntary Movements of InfancythAt about the 4 week of life cortically controlled voluntary movement begins to appearFirst signs are slight movements of only the head neck and eyesCerebral cortical control slowly assumes command of movement production as the subcortically produced reflexes gradually disappearThe diameters of the nerve dendrites which carry the electrical stimulation to induce movement slowly increase accelerating the velocity of the stimulation and thus more efficiently facilitating the motor nerve cell activity necessary for producing voluntary movementthe voluntary movements of infancy are called rudimentary movements because they are the rudiments of future more advanced movement formsMany factors like experience affect the sequence and age of acquisition of these behavioursCategorizing the Voluntary Movements of InfancyVoluntary movements of infancy are grouped into three major categories stability locomotion and manipulationStabilityincludes a wide range of voluntary movements from head control to the eventual attainment of upright postureLocomotionincludes such movements as creeping and crawling and all their variationsManipulationinvolves the voluntary use of the hands such as the entire progression of movements leading to the attainment of a mature reaching grasping and releasing abilityThe infant acquires more than one motor ability simultaneouslyHead ControlWhen born baby has no control over the head or neck although reflexive movement may be evidentOne of the first milestones is being able to raise the head while proneImportant because raising the headis critical to the development of other behaviours such as visually scanning the environment and being able to reach and grasp from surrounding objectsAt 2 months most struggle to raise their headAt 3 moths most will be able to extend their neck when proneAchievement of this ability leads to the eventual raising of the chest by pushing up with the arms
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