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Chapter 5

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3340
Nickolas Wattie

Chapter 5Prenatal Development ConcernsPrenatal DevelopmentTeratogenenvironmental agent that causes harm to the embryoFactors of how much damage teratogen will cause depend on amount of exposure babys genetic makeup and time of exposure3 major phases of human organism the germinal fertilization and implantation the embryonic period and fetal periodThe first 2 weeks germinal periodConsist of release of the oocyte from the ovary into the uterine tube where fertilization happensNext 3 days the zygote will divide forming a blastomere group of cells as it proceeds down uterusWhen zygote cleavage mitotic divison reaches 1215 blastomeres it is called morulaAfter morula enters uterus it becomes a blastocyte6 days after fertilization it attaches to endometriumposterior wall of uterusDuring second week it sinks beneath endometrium completeting implantationTeratogen during preembryoic period can kill itWeeks 38 Embryonic PeriodOrgan and support systems start to formZygote forms inner layer of cells called endoderm and outer layer of cells are subdivided to form ectoderm and mesodermEndoderm becomes digestive and respiratory systemsEctoderm nervous system sensory receptors eyes ears etc and nails and hairMesoderm circulatory system muscles bones excretory system and reproductivePlacentawhere blood vessels between mother and embryo interwine umbilical cordwhich connects the embryo to the placenta and amnion clear fluid sack that protects embryo developMost susceptible to teratogensThalidomide tranquilizing drug in Germany caused babies to be born with shorter arms problems with outer ear missing small bone in armWeek 9 birth fetal periodAt 9 weeks 3 inches long weighs 1 ounceBirth 20 inches and weighs 7 lbsTeratogens at this time result in minor anomalies Differentiation of organ systemsPreparing systems involved in transition from intrauterine extrauterine environmentDrugs and medicationRecreational drugs4 main alcohol cannabis cocaine and tobaccoALCOHOL 17 women aged 1844 use it12218 pregnant women use19 binge drinking4 drinks1 drink per day linked to growth retardationFetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASDs an umbrella term used to describe the range of possible effects associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancyFetal alcohol syndrome FAS alcohol related neurodevelopment disorders ARND and alcoholrelated birth defects ARBDLast 2 exhibit some but not all clinical signs of FASFAS signs altered facial features mental retardation attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity retarded physical growth in stature weight and head circumferenceAvg birth weight for FAS is 5 lbs and 1 ounceAvg IQ is 670215 cases per 1000 births
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