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KINE 3340 (20)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13.doc

6 Pages
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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 3340
Professor
Nickolas Wattie

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Chapter 13 Fundamental Locomotion Skills of ChildhoodWalkingWhen infant can walk alone hands are free to explore2 phases a swing phase and a stance or support phaseSwing phase begins when the foot or toes of one leg leave the supporting surface and ends when the heel or foot of the same leg recontacts the groundThe time when balance is maintained on only one foot is the support phaseWhile the right foot is in the swing phase the left foot is in the support phaseWhen both feet are in contact with the supporting surface the walker is in a double support phaseTo walk infant must have sufficient leg strength to support the body weight but also be able to maintain state of equilibriumInitial movement pattern of walking is characterized by short quick rigid steps toes pointed outward and the infant assumes a wide base of support infant makes a flatfooted contact with the ground instead of the heeltoe contact of an adult gait arms are rigidIndependent walking seen in children by 12 monthsDynamic BaseFeet are wide apart to widen the base of support as balance improves the child brings the feet closer togetherFoot AngleDegree of toeingout decreases during the first 4 years of life and then remains fairly stable during the teensWalking SpeedIncreases in walking speed were due mostly to increases in step lengthAfter 5 months increases in walking speed were due to increased walking cadenceStep frequency decreases with advancing age during the childhood yearsWith age gains in neuromuscular postural control partly contribute to longer stepsWalking with External Loads20 percent load was responsible for inducing a significant increase in trunk forward lean an increase in double support and stance duration and a decrease in trunk angular motion and swing duration15 percent load only induced a significant increase in forward lean
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