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Chapter 17

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3340
Nickolas Wattie

Chapter 17 NotesThe Shift to a lifespan approach to motor developmentPiaget terminated his theory of cognitive development well before adulthoodRapid increase in relative number of people over age of 65 group have increase 1 each decade since 1940 except 1980s during those 10 years 25 increaseCentenarians doubled by 90s to 70000ths45 of centenarians are women78 are non Hispanic whitesIncreasing number of seniors means more special services nutritional services housing arrangements medical care and recreational and educational opportunitiesIn US 2 times more ppl over 65 8 times more ppl over 6574 16 times more ppl 7584 and 21 times more ppl over 85Balance and Postural SwayComplex process Synthesis of incoming sensory info awareness of the position of the bodys parts in space and surround environmentAs info is synthesized an appropriate movement response is created to control bodys positioningDependent on vision our vestibular abilities proprioception knowledge of the position of the bodys part in space muscle strength and our ability to react quickly to external stimuliWith increasing age these abilities decrease causing deficit in ability to balanceRequires conscious attention in late adulthoodThese declines can be offset by intervention and appropriate exercise programsStudies get diff results because of using healthyweak subjects and definition of elderlyPostural swaya nearly imperceptible backandforth motion designed to assist the body in maintain an upright or standing positionthDuring childhood it is refined from than until approx 6 decade static control of posturethgenerally improves after 6 decade gradual deterioration is seenBy age 80 might look how it did when you were 69 yrsOlder and younger adults have similar automatic postural muscle responses when their balance is perturbed though the efficiency of activating the system in older declineWhen somatosensory and visual info is incongruent with postural away older adults may lose balance completelyOther balance related systems including vision joint position and vestibular sensesMagnitude of body sway during standing indicates ability to balanceBalance declines as CNSs capacity to control movement diminishesControl of balance may be impeded by the reduction of the number of cells in the cerebellum and brain stem and a decreased capacity for using proprioceptive infoThe info received from various body parts is less accurate inhibiting ability for precise body controlMore sway in elderly and more in women because of their reduced muscle mass per body weight relative to menAs vision decreases light dims more postural sway thus vision is important factor in maintaining postural stability Fallsmore than 30 of ppl over age of 65 fallLeading cause of injury and death in that age groupSuffer hip fractures and head trauma most common cause for broken bonesMen are more likely to die from a fall and women are more likely to break somethingDeaths from falls increasing those that survive have chronic effects that limit their ability to walk and to be independentFalls diminish self efficacy and confidence less mobility negative cycle leading to less physical activityCauses of Falls2 types predispositional and situationals
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