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MKTG 2030 (84)
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ch 10

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MKTG 2030
Ben Kelly

Chapter 10: From One-to-Many to Many-to-Many: Traditional and New Media 10.1 One-to-Many: The Traditional Communication Model Promotion is the coordination of marketing communication efforts to influence attitudes or behavior - Virtually everything an org says and does is a form of marketing communication- ads, packages, uniforms its employees wear, and what other consumers say about their experiences - Every element of the marketing mix is actually a form of communication- all contributes to our impression of it Marketing communication is general performs one or more of 4 roles: 1. It informs consumers about new g/s 2. It reminds consumers to continue using certain brands 3. It persuades consumers to choose one brand over others 4. It builds relationships with customers Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is the process that marketers use ‘to plan, develop, execute, and evaluate coordinated, measurable, persuasive brand communication programs over time’ to targeted audiences- Argues that consumers come in contact w/ a company or brand in many different ways before, after, and during a purchase - Consumers see these points of contact (or ‘touchpoints’) as a whole, and as a single company that speaks to them in different places and different ways Multichannel promotional strategy is a marketing communication strategy where they combine traditional advertising, sales promotion, and public relations activities with online buzz-building activities- selectively use some or all of these touchpoints to deliver a consistent message to their customers - Marketers seek to understand what info consumers want as well as how, when and where they want it- and then to deliver info about the product using the best combination of communication methods available to them - Some questions still exist and these get even more complicated because the communication options available to marketers change literally almost every day - ‘One-to-many’ communication model: single marketer develops and sends messages to many consumers, perhaps even millions of consumers at once- involves traditional forms of mass media marketing communication (i.e. out-of-home like billboards, internet advertising); this model also benefits from consumer sales promotions (i.e. coupons, samples, rebates) and special events the public relations professionals organize - Traditional methods still work in some circumstances- lot of other better options available- given our wired, 24/7 culture- need to consider an updated communications model Word-of-mouth communication is communication that takes place when consumers provide info about products to other consumers - In the updated model, marketers do things like buzz-marketing activities that use viral and evangelical marketing techniques, new social media platforms such as brand communities, product review sites and social networking sites - One- to- one includes when marketers speak to consumers and business customers individually- personal selling, personal trade sales promotion; database marketing activities that includes direct marketing See Figure 10.1- The Three Models of Marketing Communications The Communications Model Communications model is the process whereby meaning is transferred from a source to a receiver; a source transmits a message through some medium to a receiver who (hopefully) listens and understands the message See Figure 10.2- Communications Model -it explains who orgs create and transmit messages from the marketer (the source) to the consumer (the receiver) who (we hope) understands what the marketer intends to say The Source Encodes Encoding is the process of translating an idea into a form of communication that will convey meaning Source is an organization or individual that sends a message The Message Message is the communication in physical form that goes from a sender to a receiver - Includes info necessary to persuade, inform, remind, or build a relationship - Includes verbal and nonverbal elements - Marketer must select elements carefully so that the message connects with end consumers or business customers in its target market- otherwise effective communication simply doesn’t occur and the org just wastes money The Medium Medium is a communication vehicle though which a message is transmitted to a target audience - Two major challenges in selecting- (1) must make sure the target market will be exposed to the medium (2) attributes of the advertised product should match those of the medium The Receiver Decodes - The receiver is any individual or org that intercepts and interprets the message Decoding is the process whereby a receiver assigns meaning to a message- translates the message into an idea that makes sense - Too often, sources and receivers aren’t on the same page, and the results can range from mildly embarrassing to downright disastrous Noise Noise is anything that interferes with effective communication; it can block messages; can occur at any stage of communication; marketers try to minimize noise when they place their messages where there is likely to be less distractions or competition for consumers’ attention Feedback Feedback is the receivers’ reactions to the message; it’s used to gauge the effectiveness of the message so they can fine-tune it; if people are pissed they’re likely to be eager to provide feedback; we WANT customers to complain so that we have an opportunity to address their concerns before they say negative things to others The Traditional Promotional Mix Promotional mix is the major elements of marketer-controlled communication, including advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing - Promotion works best when the marketer skillfully combines all the elements of the promotion mix to deliver a single consistent message about a brand Mass Communications Mass communication relates to television, radio, magazines and newspapers See Figure 10.3: Control Continuum - The Messages that consumers receive about companies and products differ in the amount of control the marketer has over the message she delivers to the consumer - Advertising: Advertising (= is non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media); reaches a number of consumers at once; can convey rich and dynamic images that establish and reinforce a distinctive brand identity; helps marketers bond with customers and boost sales; useful to communicate factual info about the product, can remind consumers to buy their favorite brand; sometimes credibility problem - Sales promotion: contests, coupons, other incentives that marketers design to build interest in, or encourage purchase of, a product during a specified period; sales promotion intends to stimulate immediate action rather than build long-term loyalty - Public relations: describes a variety of communication activities that seek to create and maintain a positive image of an org and its products among various publics (including customers, government officials, shareholders); programs can include efforts to present negative company news in the most positive way so that this info will have less damaging consequences; try to influence long term feelings, opinions, beliefs Personal Communications - Part of personal selling - It’s the direct interaction between a company representative and a customer that can occur in person, by phone, or even over an interactive computer link - Salespeople are a valuable source of communication- customers can ask questions and the salesperson can immediately address objections and describe product benefits - Personal selling can be tremendously effective- esp. for big ticket items and industrial products- for which the ‘human touch’ is essential - Direct marketing provides direct communication with a consumer or business customer – can target even segments of one Table 10.1: A Comparison of Elements of the Traditional Promotion Mix Promotional Element Pros Cons Advertising - The marketer has - B/c of the high cost to control over the produce and message will say, distribute, it may not when it will appear, be an efficient means and who is likely to of communicating with see it some target audience - Some ads may have low credibility and/or be ignored by audiences Sales promotion - Provided incentives to - Short-term emphasis retailers to support on immediate sales one’s products rather than a focus on - Builds excitement to building brand loyalty retailers to support - The number of one’s products competing promotions - Builds excitement for may make it hard to retailers and break through the consumers promotional clutter - Encourages - If consumers use too immediate purchase many price-relates and trial of new sales promotion products activities, consumers’ - Price-oriented perception of a fair promotions cater to price for the brand price-sensitive may be lowered consumers Public relations - Relatively low cost - lack of control over the - High credibility message that is eventually transmitted, and no guarantee that the message will ever reach the target - it’s difficult to measure the effectiveness of PR efforts Personal Selling - Direct contact with the - High cost per contact customer gives the with customer salesperson the - Difficult to ensure opportunity to be consistency of flexible and modify the message when it’s sales message to delivered by many coincide with the different company customer’s needs representatives - The salesperson can - The credibility of get immediate salespeople often feedback from the depends on the quality customer of their company’s image, which has been created by other
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