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Chapter 2

Chapter 2.pdf


Department
Marketing
Course Code
MKTG 4150
Professor
Arundhati Bhattacharyya
Chapter
2

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Jessica Gahtan Textbook Notes MKTG 4150
Page 1 of 8
CHAPTER 2: PERCEPTION
! Sensation is the immediate response of our sensory receptors to such basic
stimuli as light, colour, and sound.
! Perception is the process by which these sensations are selected, organized,
and interpreted.
! Perception can be more influential than sensation in determining consumer
preferences
Sensory(Systems(
! Process of perception: Exposure, attention, and interpretation
! External stimuli (sensory inputs) can be received on a number of channels
through 5 senses; constitutes raw data that generates many types of responses
Sensory(Marketing:(Harnessing(Perception(For(A(Competitive(Advantage(
! Sensory marketing is when companies pay extra attention to the impact of
sensation on our product experiences
! Companies recognize that our senses help us decide which products appeal to
us
Sight&
! Visual elements in advertising, store design, and packaging
! Meanings are communicated through product’s colouring, size, styling,
brightness, and distinctiveness from competitors’ products
! Colours are rich in symbolic value and cultural meanings
E.g. red represents good luck to the Chinese
! Some reactions to colours are from learned associations E.g. Black in Western
countries symbolizes mourning; in Eastern countries (like Japan) white plays this
role
! Black is also associated with power
! Perceptions of a colour depend on its physical wavelength and how the mind
responds to that stimuli
! Yellow is at the middle of the wavelength; is the brightest and attracts the most
attention
! Different reactions to colours are also because of biological differences women
are drawn to brighter tones, and are more sensitive to subtle shadings and
patterns (they see colour better)
! Age also influences response to colour older = eyes mature and vision takes on
a yellow cast (since colours look duller to older people they prefer white and
other bright tones)
! Some colour combinations come to be so strongly associated with a corporation
that they’re called its trade dress
! Trade-dress protection is granted only when consumers might be confused about
what they’re buying because of similar coloration of a competitor’s packages
! Perceptions have caloric consequences
Bigger box/package makes you feel like it’s appropriate to eat more
Visual illusions influence how much we drink and pour when we pour into a
glass we focus on the height of the liquid we’re pouring and not the width

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Jessica Gahtan Textbook Notes MKTG 4150
Page 2 of 8
When someone has a small package they assume that the small package
will control their food intake so they give up their own control often end up
eating more
Variety when there’s an abundance, it feels like it’s appropriate to eat more
Smell&
! Odours can stir emotion or create a calming feeling; they can evoke memories or
relieve stress
! Responses to scents can cause good or bad feelings businesses are exploring
connections between smell, memory, and mood
! Suggested that ambient scent can influence moods and consumer cognitions
pleasant scents can increase recall of brand names (esp. when the scent is
combined with a visual image)
! Consumers’ reactions to odours depend on their cultural background
multinational companies adjust the scents of their products from country to
country
! We process fragrance cues in the limbic system most primitive part of the brain
and the place where we experience immediate emotions
! Sense of smell can also lead to different behavioural reactions to stimuli i.e.
viewing ads and being exposed to congruent odours can cause people to spend
more time processing the product info and being more likely to try different
alternatives within the relevant product category
! Clean” scents cause people to behave more virtuously
! There’s evidence that certain scents are more effected when targeted toward 1 of
the sexes (Women vanilla; men honey)
Hearing&
! Background music creates desired moods
! Many aspects of sound may affect people’s feelings and behaviors stores and
restaurants often play certain kinds of music to create a certain mood
! If you decompose brand names into individual sounds called phonemesthese
cues affect consumer evaluations and convey unique meanings about inherent
properties of the product e.g. brand names with repetition in their phonetic
structure produce positive affect when spoken aloud, leading to increased
preference for the brand
! “Functional music” is played in stores, malls, offices to either relax or stimulate
consumers for example, workers tend to slow down during midmorning and
midafternoon so Muzak increases the tempo (“stimulus progression”) during
those slack times linked to reductions in absenteeism among factory workers
! Aging ear loss of the ability to hear higher-frequency sounds
Touch&
! Tactile stimulation is an important sensory channel moods are relaxed or
stimulated on the basis of sensations of the skin
! Diners who were touched by waiters gave bigger tips; food demonstrators in a
supermarket who lightly touched customers had better luck getting shoppers to
try a new snack/redeem coupons for the brand
! Coca-Cola’s bottle was designed 90 years ago in a way that could be identified,
even in the dark
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Jessica Gahtan Textbook Notes MKTG 4150
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! Haptic (touch) senses appear to moderate the relationship between product
experience and judgment confidence, confirming the common-sense notion that
we’re more sure about what we perceive when we can touch it
! Project judgments by individuals who don’t normally possess a compulsion to
touch products (low autotelics) are influenced by the ‘feel’ of a package, while
those who do have a compulsion to touch items (high autotelics) don’t rely on this
cue to infer a product’s quality
! Aspects of touch inherent to the retail setting itself might influence consumer
evaluations e.g. soft carpeting leads to a greater sense of physical comfort than
hard tiling when evaluating a product that was close, people tend to use the
comfort of the carpet to compare against and judged the product less positively
When consumers judged a product that was moderately far away, their
bodily sensations unconsciously guided their product evaluations when @
a moderate distance away, consumers perceived the products more
positively when they stood on the carpet
! Japanese practice Kansei engineeringa philosophy that translates
customers’ feelings into design elements
! H-Point refers to the location of the seated driver’s hip if it is higher, the driver
feels like they’re riding high on the high way (Ford calls it “Command Seating” to
reinforce the power it wants drivers to feel as they look at the other cars below)
Taste&
! Consumers have changing palettes; specialized companies “flavour houses”
keep busy trying to develop new tastes
! Changes in our culture also determine the tastes we find desirable consumers’
greater appreciation of different ethnic dishes has contributed to increased
desires for spicy foods
! Various ways to influence consumers’ perceptions of the taste of the product
itself
E.g. colour of the product can influence perceptions of the actual taste
even when the taste is the exact same
! Advertisements that refer to more than 1 sense lead to the more positive taste
perceptions than advertisements that one refer to taste
EXPOSURE
! Exposure is the process by which the consumer comes into contact with the
stimulus and has the potential to notice it;
! We are capable of noticing stimuli that we are exposed to for even a very short
time IF we choose to do so
Sensory(Thresholds(
! Some people are better able to pick up sensory info than others
! Psychophysics focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our
personal, subjective world
The(Absolute(Threshold(
! The absolute threshold refers to the minimum amount of stimulation that can be
detected on a sensory channel it’s an important consideration in designing
marketing stimuli e.g. if the print is too small to read, an ad is basically wasted
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