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Chapter 6

MKTG 4150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Brand Equity, Michelin Man, Quaker Oats Company


Department
Marketing
Course Code
MKTG 4150
Professor
Peter Darke
Chapter
6

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CHAPTER 6: PERSONALITY, LIFESTYLES, & VALUES
PERSONALITY
Personality: refers to a person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences that way he or she
responds to the environment
-People don’t behave consistently across different situations
-People don’t exhibit stable personalities
-Only some aspects of personality are relatively stable
TRAIT THEORIES
One approach to personality is to focus on quantitative measurement of specific traits, or identifiable characteristics
that define a person
-Ex. people can be distinguished by degree to which they are socially outgoing
oTrait of extroversion
-Some specific traits relevant to consumer behavior include:
oInnovativeness/need for uniqueness
oPublic self-consciousness
oNeed for cognition
Trait dimension most relevant to consumer behavior is extent to which a person is motivated to consume in order to
please others or to fit in vs. extent to which person consumes to express a unique sense of self without much concern
about being accepted by a group
-Idiocentrics: people who have individual orientation
-Allocentrics: people who have group orientation
Differences between 2 personality types include:
-Contentment
oIdiocentrics = happier
-Health-consciousness
oAllocentrics = healthier
-Several other dimensions, see TB
When traits are useful
-Notion that consumers buy products that are an extension of their personalities
oIdea endorsed by many marketers
oTry to create brand personalities that will appeal to particular consumers
Ex. Pepsi appeals to those who have youthful personalities
-Personality traits often interact with situational factors to predict how consumers will behave
oEx. if you have need for uniqueness you’ll be more upset in context of party situation if someone copies
you and be more willing to trade or alter your dress
BRAND PERSONALITY
Brand personality: the set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person
-Many of the most recognizable figures are spokespersons for popular brands
oEx. Tony the Tiger, Geico Kecko
oLike real people these figures need makeovers with time
-Our feelings about brand’s personality are important part of brand equity
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Brand equity: refers to the extent to which consumers hold strong, favorable, and unique associations with a brand in
memory and the extent to which they are willing to pay more for the branded version of a product than for generic
version
-Name recognition has become so valuable that some companies are completely outsourcing production to focus
on nurturing the brand
oEx. Nike doesn’t own any sneaker factories
Some personality dimensions that can be used to compare and contrast perceived characteristics of brands in various
product categories include the following:
-Old-fashioned, wholesome, traditional i.e. Quaker Oats
-Serious, intelligent, efficient i.e. RBC
-Glamorous, romantic, sexy i.e. Victoria’s Secret
-Rugged, outdoorsy, tough, athletic i.e. Old Spice
Packaging and other physical cues create personality for a product too
-Ex. wine packaging
Marketing activities undertaken on behalf of product can also influence inferences about its personality
-Brand repositioned several times
oIt is flighty or schizophrenic
-Brand uses continuing character in ad
oIt is familiar and comfortable
-Brand charges high price
oIt is snobbish and sophisticated
-Brand frequently available on special deal
oIt is cheap and uncultured
-Brand offers many lines
oIt is versatile and adaptable
-Brand sponsors show on PBS
oIt is helpful and supportive
-Brand features easy packaging
oIt is warm and approachable
-Brand offers seasonal sales
oIt is planful and practical
-Brand offers 5 year warranty
oIt is reliable and dependable
Creation and communication of brand personality is 1 of the primary ways marketers can make product stand out from
competition and inspire years of loyalty to it
-Animism: practice in which inanimate products are given qualities that somehow make them alive
o2 types of animism can be identified:
Level 1: Highest order of animism
Object associated with human individual
Allows consumer to feel that spirit of celeb or endorser is available through brand
May associate brand with loved one
oEx. Grandma always served Kraft jam
Level 2: Objects are anthropomorphized; given human traits
Cartoon or mythical creation might be treated as if it were person
Ex. Michelin Man
Personality of Positioning
Brand’s positioning strategy is statement about what that brand wants to be in eyes of consumer
-Brand personality is also statement about how brand wants to be positioned
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