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MODR 1710 (3)

Rooney, Orr, and Gilbert.docx

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Modes Of Reasoning
MODR 1710
Linda Carozza

Rooney separates the metaphorical construction of feminine unreason from women irrationality.  What does Rooney mean by gendered reasoning? She means that reason is understood in a way that excludes the female’s characteristics. Reason usually is understood to exclude body, nature, passion, emotion and instinct which are usually seen as feminine. In contrast, men’s reasoning is seen as universal and neutral, and better. Rooney argues that certain types of metaphorical exclusions are not less worthy to get serious attention.  Different views that exist with respect to sex and gender reasoning -Traditional view: positioning maleness and reason close together since it is a tradition. Males seen as rational and females seen as irrational. We tend to exclude terms like emotion, imagine, private (vs public) and particular (vs universal) which tend to be female characteristics. Sexist metaphors were fairly persistent in philosophical conceptions of reason and knowledge in the Western tradition.Reasoning: universal, detached from people’s emotion and objective (not influenced by emotions, biased). - Practical view: men and women act differently due to nature. Men symbolize the mind and women symbolize the body. - Biological essentialism: people have unchangeable ways of being. If u r born a man u have to be masculine. The problem is assuming that this is nature. - More radical views: sceptical about good reasoning, stop the old reasoning and start new reasoning. - More traditional feminist view: refers to socialization and historical opportunities for men. Argue that they are differences regard to socialization and history between men and women.  Rooney is not essentialist, radical, or practical.  Sex metaphor: metaphor using images  Metaphorical exclusion: This is the less obvious system of sexism. Rooney points out that in the Greek philosophy reason and form are aligned with maleness and formlessness and matter are aligned with femaleness. She also mentioned that Aristotle says that the male imparts the form to the child while the female imparts the passive matter. The rational part of the soul "naturally" rules the irrational part, the natural authority of free man over free women. Artsitole compares a man justice to himself as master and as a servant for a husband and wife.  Reason: refers to the process by which we gain the proper knowledge or the truth. Having a judgment based on logic or rationality. Having a rational judgment.  Rationality: refers to the models of reasoning. Having a knowledgeable judgment.  "Just as in man and woman there is one flesh (soft) of two, so the one nature of the mind embraces (supports) our intellect (smartness) and action, or our council (meeting) and execution (carrying out), or our reason and reasonable appetite (eve eating apple)."  What is meant by metaphorical exclusion? It refers to the less obvious way of excluding women in society, sexism. One of Rooney examples was casting women in a project as the other of the knowing subject, or in opposition to such "proper" knowing. She also provides a passage where women are seen as the opposite of eternal, free, and knowing.  Metaphors are being adopted to the point of their disappearance, since people get used to them as they become a fact. The nature of mind, soul, reason has been notoriously intractable (difficult) for philosophers, which makes theorizing about this whole area so much more susceptible (weaker) to the dictates (say) of a dominant metaphor.  1. The basic elements of the structure are a male node (aligned with reason), a female node (aligned with unreason), and some sort of relationship between them. 2. When reason is operating correctly the male node represents the locus of activity and a "proper" relation with the female node has been established. 3. When there is a lapse in reason or when unreason has surfaced, the female node is "active," with the activity taking the form of wily charms, contrary impulses, or shadowy interference 4. The activity of reason in (2) almost always includes some form of denigration, extrusion, domination, or control of the female node, with related images of battle or struggle.  Reasoning transcends (go beyond) gender and sex. Rooney says that reasoning is limited and that there are other ways of being more rational and we do not use them, thus we should start.  How does Rooney explain the dualism of mind and body? she refers to the feminine being pointed to historically as irrational and uses the body/appetite to deal with situations. While the men are seen as rational. For example, when Eve used her appetite and decided to eat the apple and then tempted Adam to it. Also, historically Adam is not seen to have done anything wrong, since males are seen to be tempted easily by females. Thus constructing the idea that men are neutral and women are irrational.  What do we have to know about the western canon? Rooney separates the social construction of feminine unreason from women irrationality. The western cannon is the cannon of litleture, art, and music that influenced the shaping of the western culture. This cannon was made of men. This is important because Rooney argues that the western culture is shaped around ideas that view women as unreasoned, while the only reason they were like that is because they did not have the proper opportunity as men. The ideas around women have come from the western cannon which were made of men. This shows that it is a certain group of only men are who constructed such an idea. This affects rational
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