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Critical Thinking AP MODR 1760.docx

39 Pages

Modes Of Reasoning
Course Code
MODR 1760
Idil Boran

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Chapter 1 The power of critical thinking Determining the quality and value of the beliefs we hold is a function of thinking and the kind of thinking is critical thinking This kind of investigation into thinking is not descriptive It is about questioning whether our thoughts and claims we believe are true or worth holding Critical thinking prescriptivegoaloriented offers us a set of standards Please include 1 Techniques algorithm specific tools or procedures2 Attitudes 3 Principles restrictions if you violate them it messes everything up The evaluation is systematic It involves distinct procedures and methodsThe evaluation involves logic but it is broader than logic Knowing the rules and principles of logic is only one aspect of a broader project Why it matters it matters because critical thinking is the basisand is requisite of an examined lifeHow it works the basic tool is the argument In this framework argument is understood as a specific thing 1 Statement premise does not need to be one sentence only 2 Statement premise cannot be a question demandsrequest or imperatives exclamations 3 Statement premise 4 Therefore statement conclusion The argument is the most important tool in critical thinkingThis is what distinguishes systematic thinking from a jumble of unsupported claimsargument can be very simple with one premise and one conclusion must be but not limited to one of eachthe process of reasoning in this way is called inference deriving a conclusion from the premises This is to be distinguished from more explanationHow to distinguish an argument make sure u have the structureHow to distinguish a statementhave to have the S IS P structure7512 Water boils at 100degree CelsiusTF YN subjectivenormative claims rap music is better than fiddle music look in page 11 the rifle exampleTherefore usually concludes everything that was said anything that indicates consequence after thus so but therefore is standardJulie is going to be later example its a good example of deductive reasoning or inferencingIs God all powerful not claimspremises are a set of statements with a conclusionReason why statements should be used these are sentences with truth value can be accepted as truth or rejected other things could be true or false validity and soundnessBurden of proof a reason why people should be moved by your claim proofif available or supporting evidenceclaimHuman beings are fallible prone to err review gorskis logic notes 1 We are cognitively fallible we need criteria not knowing is not examining no way to check thoughts and examine them thoroughlySocrates first philosopher turned philosophy into a structured discipline the unexamined life is not worth livingThe limits of ordinary language and communication The process of critical thinking involves distilling the arguments p17Analytic thinking vs intuitive cluttered thinking ordinary language and communicationlook at arguments in the rough p1617look at sentence 4 of the relationship paragraph she gave some thought sentence 9 is a repetition the motivation to say im outta here is because the partner lied to herPurpose in critical thinking is to achieve arguments that give the best reason fundamentally it should be free of emotions and passionate claimsaspectsSystematic formulation of statements by rational standards check the formal definitionA bad argument or flawed one is still an argumentIf you want selfownership then you need to follow critical thinking to adjudicate and reconsider everything that you claimed otherwise you are believing things without scrutiny Responsible for thinking through the claims that you hold Do Exercise 11 not touching on essay writing at the end of the chapter You can figure out the answer by process of elimination presents a conditionconditional statement Chapter 2 The Environment of Critical ThinkingTwo categories Category 1 impediments because of how we think psychological factors eg emotions attitudes Category 2 impediments because of what we think ideas we hold eg beliefs look at perils of a haunted mind perils of a haunted world viewPerils of a haunted mindThe idea of selfinterested thinking and its limitationsGuidelines for a critical thinking attitude against strictly selfinterested thinking pLook at pg 37 the almighty self watch 12 angry men wellversedPower and pressure of the groupLook at pg41 guidelines for process of reasoning to verify that it is not affected by selfinterested thinkingquote from Bertrand Russell developed the basis for modern mathematicsmodern comp logiccomp sci Epistemology theory of knowledge read book problems of philosophyIf there is more passion and emotion there is usually it is less likely to be strong2 There is something good in relying on reason to explain things need to be able to control emotions even if the view you have is not accepted by othersThere is an underlying commitment to consider every point being given free of fear a rule of argumentation dont dismiss evidence just because you do not want to believe it The power of the groupPrejudice bias all inculcated in the group Quintessential of group bias is encapsulated in the human condition discrimination based on raceRacial discrimination has been institutionalised because of the power of the group tendency to be affected by the group is always presentWe need to look for reasons that pass the test of rationality Overlook the pressures of the group look for reason to guide thinking this gives standardsLook at pg4345 Perils of a haunted world viewSubjective relativism any opinion can be right because of difference of place time age or whatever conditiongrounds its subjective because it reduces truth claims to Latin proverb you cant discuss colours and tastes and even opinions themselvesPrima facie at first glance it is attractive and interesting establishes egalitarianism but then it loses its value you have to go back to the fact that we make mistakes either of reason or action There is no way off resolving error with this view therefore there are limitations to this view there is a point when you cannot just say its their opinion it is disingenuous As long as we are prone to make mistakes we are forced to follow a criteria to follow avoiding to make errorsFallibility is a compelling reason to reject this idea Social relativismCultural relativism societies hold different opinions so it is ambiguous and there is no objective truth Its attractive because it provides some sort of egalitarianismIndividuals are not infallible societies are It is plausible that no society has ever been wrong about something Different cultures hold diff views you can be sensitive but that doesnt mean you cant examine them Skepticism we dont know anything there is no basis for knowledgeBecause humans are fallible we do not know the truth nothing is written in stone there should be critical examinationEverything is open to rational scrutiny Gives you a lot of autonomy but requires a lot of skill Cynical position this is dangerous due to the arrogance involved in the claim its not to help find claims that we cant doubt but to understand the degrees of reasonable doubt read chapter 3
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