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NATS 1560 (24)

Food At a Molecular level

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1560
Richard Jarell

Food At A Molecular Level  Organic Chemistry  Human Nutritional needs Organic Chemistry Chemistry that deals with compounds Many of them are biological, but not all by any means. Chemical Shorthands Each element has a one or two letter symbol. A molecule is described by a chemical formula Shows which kinds of atoms there are and how many Subscripts tell how many of preceding atom H2O is the formula for water: 2 Hydrogen’s + 1 oxygen C6 H12 O6 is one from of sugar. 6 Carbons + 12 Hydrogen’s + 6 Oxygen’s Shape of molecules is important Use structural formulas Isomers = 2 or 3 or 4 molecules with the same stuff in them but shaped differently Can be used in condensed structural formulas Structural formula provides a 2-D idea of molecules shape Carbon compounds can have prefixes for number of Carbons in a chain Carbon Chains Prefixes Prefix – Number Carbon Meth- 1 Eth - 2 Prop- 3 But - 4 Pent - 5 Hex - 6 Hept - 7 Oct - 8 Non - 9 Dec - 10 Organization of Organic Molecules Groups of Atoms form functional groups in molecules. There are where chemical activity take place Here are some of the typical groups Types of Functional groups Alcoholics: C-O-H - Example : Methanal= CH3OH Ethers: C-O-C - Example: Diethyl ether C2H5OC2H5 Carbonyl group C=O Aledehydes (carbonyl group + Hydrogen) - Example: Formaldehyde HCHO Ketones (carbonyl group + 2 carbons) - Example: Acetone CH3COCH3 Hydrocarbons Well known families of compounds Made up of Carbon and Hydrogen Typically found in petroleum or natural gas Some have single carbon bonds = these are saturated hydrocarbons Some have unsaturated carbon bonds Alkenes have double bonds, Alynes have triple bonds Ethane is the simplest alkene Can be a monomer that joins with others to form a polymer Human Nutritional Needs We need energy and raw materials Water is essential Start with macronutrients; required in quantity 3 types: Proteins, Carbs, fats/oils Energy and Metabolism We require energy to live This energy is ultimately from the sun Stored in bonds of biochemical Proteins Proteins constructed from amino acids Amino Acid Molecules have a carboxyl end and an amino group Amino and Carboxyl ends of neighbours form water molecule When removed bt an enzyme, Peptide Bond results Proteins is, then a Polypeptide Two protein molecules with the same number of amino acids, but they are different proteins due to different amino acids. Proteins used for structure (muscle, organs, skin, nails, hair) Muscle contractions Act as enzymes to catalyse many reactions Involved in hormones, immune systems Moves oxygen through bloodstream Moves Cholesterol (lipoprotein) Receptors in cell membranes (Glycoproteins) Human proteins uses 20 different amino acids Half can be synthesised by our cells Other half
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