Chapter1- Notes- The Living body Monday September 16 2013.h
Section 1.1- The characteristics of life
Cell-Aorganized unit that can survive and reproduce by itself. It uses energy, necessary
raw materials, and DNAinstructions.
Homeostasis- Astate of overall internal chemical and physical stability that is required
for survival of cells and the body as a whole.
Living and non-living things are alike in some ways, for instance they are both
made up of atoms, which are natures smallest fundamental substance.
- There are features living things share, that non-living things don’t have.
There are 5 basic characteristics of life:
1. Living things take in and use energy and materials- Humans consume food to
get our energy, this helps operate us in ways to keep us alive.
2. Living things sense and respond to changes in the environment- Ex.Aplant
wilts when the soil around its roots dries out, and you might put on a sweater on a
3. Living things consist of one or more cells- Cells are the smallest units that can
be alive. The energy for all cells comes fromATP, which is also only in living
4. Living things maintain homeostasis- this is to ensure the survival of all cells in
the body, so they can complete their regular activities. Homeostasis means, “
staying the same”.
5. Living things reproduce and grow- we can do this through the instructions of
Section 1.2- Our Place in the Natural World
Primates- Adistinct group of mammals that includes humans, apes, and their close
Vertebrate- An animal that has a backbone
Evolution means change over time
Due to evolution humans are related to every other life form and share
characteristics with them.
We share most features with apes. Section 1.3- Life’s Organization
Survival need: Nutrients, oxygen, water, heat and pressure
Biosphere- All parts of the earths waters, crusts, and atmosphere in which organisms
Nature is organized on 11 basic levels.
At the most basic level are the atoms, and then molecules are the nonliving
component in which cells are built.
In humans cells are organized into tissues-muscles, and your skin.
Energy flows in the biosphere from the sun.
Gives solar energy to “self feeding” life forms, such as plants or a grain of wheat.
The raw materials come from air, soil, and water.
Self-feeders = the living worlds basic food producers.
You directly tap into stored food when you eat bread made from grain, but you tap
indirectly when eating meat of a cow that fed on grain.
Bacteria and fungi obtain energy when they decompose, breaking them down to
substances that can be recycled back to producers.
Ecosystems are a web of life.
Fungi = Decomposers, producers = grass plants, Consumers = Cattle, humans.
Section 1.4- Using science to learn about the natural world
Control Group- In an experiment, a group to which one or more experimental groups
can be compared.
Experiment-Atest carried out under controlled conditions that the researcher can
Hypothesis- Aproposed explanation for an observation or how a natural process works.
Sampling error- Distortion of experimental results, often because the sample size is too
Scientific method- Any systematic way of obtaining information about the natural world.
Variable-Afactor that can change over time or under different circumstances.
Genetic disorders happen from cancer, diabetes, environme