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Chapter 1

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Natural Science
NATS 1610
Barbara Czaban

Chapter1- Notes- The Living body Monday September 16 2013.h Section 1.1- The characteristics of life Cell-Aorganized unit that can survive and reproduce by itself. It uses energy, necessary raw materials, and DNAinstructions. Homeostasis- Astate of overall internal chemical and physical stability that is required for survival of cells and the body as a whole. ­ Living and non-living things are alike in some ways, for instance they are both made up of atoms, which are natures smallest fundamental substance. - There are features living things share, that non-living things don’t have. There are 5 basic characteristics of life: 1. Living things take in and use energy and materials- Humans consume food to get our energy, this helps operate us in ways to keep us alive. 2. Living things sense and respond to changes in the environment- Ex.Aplant wilts when the soil around its roots dries out, and you might put on a sweater on a chilly day. 3. Living things consist of one or more cells- Cells are the smallest units that can be alive. The energy for all cells comes fromATP, which is also only in living things. 4. Living things maintain homeostasis- this is to ensure the survival of all cells in the body, so they can complete their regular activities. Homeostasis means, “ staying the same”. 5. Living things reproduce and grow- we can do this through the instructions of our DNA. Section 1.2- Our Place in the Natural World Primates- Adistinct group of mammals that includes humans, apes, and their close relatives. Vertebrate- An animal that has a backbone ­ Evolution means change over time ­ Due to evolution humans are related to every other life form and share characteristics with them. ­ We share most features with apes. Section 1.3- Life’s Organization Survival need: Nutrients, oxygen, water, heat and pressure Biosphere- All parts of the earths waters, crusts, and atmosphere in which organisms live. ­ Nature is organized on 11 basic levels. ­ At the most basic level are the atoms, and then molecules are the nonliving component in which cells are built. ­ In humans cells are organized into tissues-muscles, and your skin. ­ Energy flows in the biosphere from the sun. ­ Gives solar energy to “self feeding” life forms, such as plants or a grain of wheat. ­ The raw materials come from air, soil, and water. ­ Self-feeders = the living worlds basic food producers. ­ You directly tap into stored food when you eat bread made from grain, but you tap indirectly when eating meat of a cow that fed on grain. ­ Bacteria and fungi obtain energy when they decompose, breaking them down to substances that can be recycled back to producers. ­ Ecosystems are a web of life. ­ Fungi = Decomposers, producers = grass plants, Consumers = Cattle, humans. Section 1.4- Using science to learn about the natural world Control Group- In an experiment, a group to which one or more experimental groups can be compared. Experiment-Atest carried out under controlled conditions that the researcher can manipulate. Hypothesis- Aproposed explanation for an observation or how a natural process works. Sampling error- Distortion of experimental results, often because the sample size is too small. Scientific method- Any systematic way of obtaining information about the natural world. Variable-Afactor that can change over time or under different circumstances. ­ Genetic disorders happen from cancer, diabetes, environme
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