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NATS1670B Drug Use Note.docx

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Natural Science
NATS 1670
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December 6 2011 – Drug Use pp. 204 to 270 Understanding Drugs and Their Effects DRUG: any substance that is taken to change the way you feel and function DRUG MISUSE: taking the drug for a purpose or by a person other than that for which it was medically intended. DRUG ABUSE: an excessive drug use that is inconsistent with accepted medical practice (defined by the World Health Organization) Routes of Administration - most common way = swallowing a tablet, capsule, or liquid  drugs taken orally do not have any effect for 30 minutes or more - enter through the body through the lungs by inhaling smoke, gases, aerosol sprays, or fumes from solvents or other compounds that evaporate quickly - injected with a syringe  subcutaneously (beneath the skin) – subcutaneous injection gets drugs into the blood stream within 10 minutes  intramuscularly (into muscle tissue, which is richly supplied with blood vessels) – intramuscular injection gets drugs into the blood stream within a few minutes  intravenously (directly into a vein) – intravenous injection gets drugs into blood stream immediately Dosage and Toxicity TOXICITY: the dosage level at which a drug becomes poisonous to the body, causing either temporary or permanent damage - the effects of any drug depends on the amount an individual takes - drugs are eventually broken down in the liver by detoxification enzymes Individual Differences - the enzymes in the body reduce the levels of drugs in the bloodstream; because there can be 80 variants of each enzyme, every person’s body may react differently - genetic difference, personality and psychological attitude and a person’s mind set (his/her expectations or preconceptions about using the drug) will have an effect Medications - medications and pharmaceutical products relieve symptoms and help cure various illness but improper use can lead to hospitalizations and added health care costs for Canadians What Should I Know about Buying Over-the-Counter Drugs? - aspirin increases blood alcohol concentrations  can damage the lining of the stomach and lead to ulcers in those who take large daily doses for arthritis - most often misused:  nasal sprays – used to relieve congestion by shrinking blood vessels in the nose. If it is used too often the blood vessels will widen and surrounding tissues become swollen therefore more congestion and can result in complete loss of smell  Laxatives – if it contains phenolphthalein, it’ll irritate the lining of the intestines and cause muscles to contract or tighten therefore making constipation worse.  Eye drops – makes the blood vessels of the eye contract. If it used too often the blood vessels will expand making the eye look redder than before  Sleep aids – there has been little research on their use and possible risks  Cough syrup – young people think of dextromethorphan (DXM) as a “poor man’s version” of the drug ecstasy Prescription Drugs th - Canadians reported the 4 higndst per capita use of prescription narcotics in the world - Canadians reported the 2 highest use of sedatives-hypnotics - Canada was among the top 15 countries in the use of prescription amphetamines - Most frequent mistakes doctors make are overdosing or under dosing, omitting information from prescription, ordering the wrong dosage form, and not recognizing a patient’s allergy to a drug Nonadherence (not properly taking prescription drugs) - many people have trouble understanding dosage information or cant read standard levels - dangers include recurrent infections, serious medical complications and emergency hospital treatment Physical Side Effects - serious complications that may occur include heart failure , heart attack, seizures, kidney and liver failure, severe blood disorders, birth defects, blindness, memory problems and allergic reactions - penicillin, aspirin, sulpha drugs, barbiturates, anticonvulsants, insulin, and local anaesthetics provoke allergic responses - allergic reactions range from mild rashes to anaphylaxis (constriction of airways and sudden drop of blood pressure that causes rapid pulse, weakness, paleness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, unconsciousness and collapse) Psychological Side Effects - among the medications most likely to cause psychological side effects are drugs for high blood pressure, heart disease, asthma, epilepsy, arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, anxiety, insomnia and depression - Corticosteroids, used for asthma, autoimmune diseases and cancer can cause different psychiatric symptoms - Ulcer medications can cause delirium and disorientation - Any medication that slows down bodily systems (many high blood pressure and cardiac drugs) cause depressive symptoms - All drugs that stimulate or speed up the central nervous system cause agitation and anxiety Drug Interactions - don’t drink a hot beverage with a medication; the temperature may interfere with the effectiveness of the drug - alcohol can change the rate of metabolism and the effects of many different drugs because it dilates the blood vessels Caffeine Use and Misuse - it is the most widely used psychotropic (mind affecting) drug in the world - 81% of Canadians drink coffee occasionally while 61% of Canadians drink coffee on a daily basis - we drink an average of 2.6 cups of coffee per day - coffee contains 100 to 150 milligrams of caffeine per cup - tea contains 40 to 100 milligrams and cola about 35 milligrams per cup - Health Canada recommends consuming no more than 400 milligrams of caffeine a day - It acts as a STIMULANT: relieves drowsiness, helps in the performance of repetitive tasks, and improves the capacity for work - Consumption of high doses of caffeine can lead to dependence, anxiety, insomnia, rapid breathing, upset stomach and bowels, and dizziness Substance Use and Disorder ADDICTION: refers to the compulsive use of a substance, loss of control, negative consequences, and denial Dependence - psychological dependence occurs because it produces pleasurable feelings or relieves stress and anxiety - physical dependence occurs when a person develops tolerance to the effects of a drug and needs larger and larger doses to achieve intoxication - those with a substance dependence disorder may use a drug to avoid to relieve withdrawal symptoms - marijuana, hallucinations, and phencyclidine do not cause withdrawal symptoms - those with a drug dependence become intoxicated on a regular basis Abuse PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE-ABUSE DISORDER: users that do not develop the symptoms of tolerance and withdrawal that characterize dependence, yet they use drugs in ways that clearly have a harmful effect on them Intoxication and Withdrawal INTOXICATION: refers to maladaptive behavioural, physiological changes that occur as a result of substance abuse WITHDRAWAL: the development of symptoms that cause significant psychological and physical distress when an individual reduces or stops drug use Polyabuse - type of behaviour when a user prefers a certain type of drug but also use several others - those that enter treatment are averaging the usage of 5 different drugs Coexisting Conditions - “A little more than a third of those with a psychiatric disorder also have a chemical dependence, and a little more than a third of those with a chemical dependency problem have a psychiatric disorder” What Causes Drug Dependence and Abuse? - inherited body chemistry, genetic factors, and sensitivity to drugs may make some more susceptible than others Biology of Dependence - drug dependence is viewed as a brain disease triggered by frequent use of drugs that change the biochemistry and anatomy of neurons and alter the way they work - a brain chemical known as dopamine, which is associated with the feelings of satisfaction and euphoria, it rises during any pleasurable experience, it is a crucial messengers that links nerve cells to the brain - addictive drugs have a powerful impact on dopamine and its receptors and they change the pathways within the brains pleasure centers  according to this hypothesis, addicts do not yearn for the drug but for the rush of dopamine that these drugs produce - those born with low levels of dopamine are more susceptible to addiction Other Routes of Addiction - psychological factors such as difficulty controlling impulses, a lack of values that might constrain drug use, low self esteem, feelings of powerlessness and depression increases risk of drug dependence - one psychological trait most often linked with drug use is denial - disorders that emerge in adolescence, such as bipolar disease, may increase the risk of substance abuse - those who are isolated from friends and family or who live in communities where drugs are widely used have high rates of drug abuse - likelihood of drug abuse is related to family instability, parental rejection and divorce The Toll of Drugs - effects of drugs can be:  acute – resulting from a single dose or series of doses  chronic – resulting from long term use o users may feel fatigue, cough constantly, lose weight, become malnourished, and ache from head to toe o may suffer blackouts, flashbacks, episodes of increasingly bizarre behaviour, triggered by escalating paranoia o risk of overdosing increases steadily and must live with constant stress - early use of drugs can lead to drug related crime, poor achievement in education and job instability How Common Is Drug Use on Campus? - number one drug that is used and abused is alcohol - marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug - various factors influence which students use drugs:  perception of risk – more likely to try substances they perceive as being safe or low risk (caffeine, alcohol, tobacco and marijuana)  alcohol use – those who binge drink are more likely than others to report current or past use of marijuana, cocaine, or other illegal drugs  environment – students are influenced by their friends, residence the general public attitude toward drug use, and the internet Drugs and Driving - alcohol affects perception, coordination and judgement - marijuana affects the ability to track through curves, break quickly, and maintain speed and a safe distance between cares. It slows thinking and reflexes. There’s an elevated risk of traffic collisions among heavy users - sedatives, hypnotics, and anti anxiety agents slow reaction time and interfere with hand eye coordination and judgment - Amphetamines impair coordination - Hallucinogens distort judgement and reality and cause confusion and panic Common Drugs of Abuse Amphetamines - prescribed for weight control because they suppress appetite - they trigger the release of epinephrine (adrenaline) which stimulates the central nervous system - it is available in tablet or capsule form, abusers may grind and sniff the capsules or make a solution and inject it - Methamphetamine known as crystal meth is a white, odourless, bitter tasting crystalline powder that can be snorted, swallowed or injected  Ice is a smokeable form of methamphetamine  It is made by heating chemical ingredients together (red phosphorus, hydrochloric acid, and anhydrous ammonia) How Users Feel - produces an initial intense, pleasurable rush that lasts for a few minutes then followed by a prolonged physical and psychological high, a state of hyper alertness and energy that can last f
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