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Chapter 1


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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1670
Motti Anafi

NATS 1670 CHAPTER ONE {A Brief History of Microbiology} {May2010} D EFINITIONS {Microorganisms/microbes} an organism or virus too small to be seen without a microscope {Taxonomic system} a system for naming plants and animals and grouping similar organisms together {Eukaryote} is any organism made up of cells containing a nucleus composed of genetic material surrounded by a distinct membrane. This includes animals, plants, algae, fungi, and protozoa. {Prokaryote} is any unicellular microorganism that lacks a nucleus. Classification includes bacteria and archaea {Fungi} are eukaryotic organisms that have cell walls and obtain food from other organisms {Cell walls} a structural boundary composed of polysaccharide or protein chains that provides shape and support against osmotic pressure {Osmotic pressure} the pressure exerted across a selectively permeable membrane by the solutes in a solution on one side of the membrane. The osmotic pressure exerted by high-salt or high-sugar solutions can be used to inhibit microbial growth in certain foods {Mold} A typically multicellular fungus that grows as long filaments called hyphae and reproduces by means of spores {Yeast} A unicellular oval or round fungus that usually reproduces asexually by budding {Budding} in prokaryotes and yeasts, reproductive process in which an outgrowth of the parent cell receives a copy of the genetic material, enlarges, and detaches. In virology, extrusion of enveloped virions through the hosts cell membrane {Protozoa} are single-celled eukaryotes that lack a cell wall and are similar to animals in their nutritional needs and structure {Algae} a eukaryotic unicellular or multicellular photosynthesis or multicellular photosynthetic organisms with simple reproductive structures {Photosynthesis} process in which light energy is captured by chlorophylls and transferred to ATP and metabolites {Parasite} a microbe that derives benefit from its host while harming it or even killing it {Virus} tiny infectious acellular agent with nucleic acid surrounded by proteinaceous capsomeres that form a covering called a capsid {Facultative anaerobe} microorganism which can live with or without oxygen {Germ theory of disease} hypothesis formulated by Pasteur in 1857 that microorganisms are responsible for disease NATS 1670 CHAPTER ONE {A Brief History of Microbiology} {May2010} BIOLOGISTS MODERN DISCIPLINES Pasteur Pasteurization Indsutrial microbiology Food and beverage technology Buchner Microbial metabolism Genetics Genetic engineering Koch Kochs Postulates Etiology Ivanoswki Virology Winogradsky Environmental microbiology Ecological microbiology Gram Microbial morphology Nightingale Antiseptic medical techniques Hospital Microbiology Kitasato Serology Immunology Ehrlich Chemotherapy Fleming Pharmaceutical microbiology SCIENTISTS INVESTIGATION FIELD OF STUDY Beijerinck & Winogradsky Developed lab techniques for isolating andEnvironmental Microbiology growing environmentally important microbes Pasteur & Buchner Pasteurization and fermentation through Biochemistry enzymes Paul Ehrlich Magic Bullets chemicals to destroy Chemotherapy pathogens but nontoxic to humans Edward Jenner Invented vaccination Immunology John Snow Tracked occurrence of cholera Public Health Microbiology Robert Koch Anthrax experiments on mice Etiology John Snow Tracked occurrence of cholera Epidemiology Louis Pasteur Pasteurizing Biotechnology Louis Pasteur Pasteurizing Food Microbiology CHAPTER NOTES NATS 1670 CHAPTER ONE {A Brief History of Microbiology} {May2010} The Early Years of Microbiology The fundamental question about the nature of life, What does life really look like? led to the birth of a new science, microbiology. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) First man to discover the bacterial worldprotozoa in 1674 and bacteria in 1676 Through the production of his microscope he changed the way we see the world today He discovered a previously unknown world within a droplet of water Beasties are known today as microorganisms and microbes. Both terms include all organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope The only type of microbes not described by his work are viruses, which were too small to be seen without an electron microscope Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Developed the first taxonomic system: organisms were either regarded as within the animal or plant kingdom. Today it differs as such: fungi, protozoa, algae, bacteria, archaea, and small multicellular animals Fungi Differs
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