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Chapter 6

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1745
Robin Metcalfe

(CHAPTER 6) - Beyond the Human Eye  GALILEO; born in 1564 Two telescopes made by the great Galileo  Mummified human finger pointing upwards from a glass dish  This finger is none other than Galileo himself (middle finger of his right hand  Middle finger = rude gesture towards the church fathers who censored his words  Galileo didn’t invent the telescope  He realized that these sky sights would change the way we understand the universe, autumn of 1609-1610 Image 132: Galileo showing his visitors the sky with his telescope  250 years prior to the telescope, a craftsman in Venice began creating small discs of curved glass, that could improve vision, called ‘lenses’  The first lenses were convex, bulging at the centre  The second lenses were concave, thinner at the centre (short sight)  By the year 1450, all the ingredients for the telescope existed  Well before Galileo, the concept of the telescope was played with using curved mirrors  THOMAS DIGGES; English astronomer, mentioned his inventor father had something like a telescope  However the claims were too ambitious and impossible  Hans Lipperhey; Dutch spectacle-maker  In the summer of 1608, found a unique combination of two lenses – one convex and one concave that could help object appear closer  September 25, 1608; Lipperhey presented a letter to the States General for a patent for a certain device. Image 135; Invention of the telescope, caused a shockwave through Europe. JOHANNES HEVELIUS; observing the heavens, and will eventually produce the first detail map of the moon  Two other opticians claimed to have created the telescope before Lipperhey  Galileo didn’t hear about the instrument until the summer of 1609, when it arrived from Paris to the Republic of Venice  Venice; major Mediterranean power. 20 years earlier, venice led victorious against the ottoman empire  Galileo was at University of Padua, where he taught as a professor of mathematics  Second most important university after Bologna  Galileo’s Geometric and Military Compass comprised a pair of metal rulers linked by third curved ruler, with engraved scales; helped to solve just about every mathematical problem  Galileo was ambitious  Wanted fame  He was 45 years old when the telescope was invented, milked it financially, not for astronomical reasons  Ironically, toyed with the idea of entering a church, but his father insisted he study medicine at the University of Pisa  His father was a musician  He didn’t like medicine, more intrigued by the behaviour of objects in the real world, physics  Intrigued by a chandelier swinging in a church.  First hint of a pendulum clock, world’s first accurate time keeper  Galileo left Pisa without his medical degree Image 139: a demonstration of gravity, Galileo allegedly dropped two balls of different weights from the leaning tower of Pisa. Both balls hit the ground at the same time Image 140: JOHANNES KEPLER; great German astronomer and mathematician, never met Galileo, but together they proved Copernicus’s theory that the Earth orbits the Sun  Galileo’s experiment of dropping 2 balls over the leaning tower of Pisa was probably a myth, he reported it very late in life  SIMON STEVINUS; Dutch engineer definitely did perform the experiment several years before Galileo, off a church tower in Delft  Galileo tested acceleration; putting 2 balls on a wooden slope  He was trying to disprove Aristotle’s theory that heavier bodies fall faster than light weight bodies but once they fall, they fall at a constant speed  In 1592 he was offered a job in Padua, where had stayed for 18 years  Galileo thought the tides go up and down because the Earth is rotating under a fixed a bulge of water  According to the Aristotle and Ptolemy, the Earth was stationary at the centre of the universe  Like all scholars, he had a copy of Nicolaus Copernicus’s book De Revolutionibus and it fit his theory  He also had a copy of Johannes Kepler’s Mysterium Cosmographium  GIORDANO BRUNO; outspoken theologian and philosopher who supported Copernican System  He was an ordained priest, he then proclaimed his own religious ideas  He believed in natural magic  He believed that God was a divine being, its something found in everything, every tree and stone  He believed the universe was enormous, and every world is populated  The devil could be pardoned  Jesus wasn’t divine, he was magician  Converted to the Protestant church  The church condemned him for his beliefs and disbeliefs in the virgin mary  Betrayed to the Inquisition, refusing to take back his ideas  On February 17 1600, he was burnt naked at the stake  Back to Galileo; on January 7 1609, Galileo turned his telescope to the sky  Pointed at Jupiter, he was amazed by the three little stars close to the planet  A few nights late there were four stars  Night by night, he tracked these objects and came to the conclusion, that there were ‘four erratic sidereal bodies performing revolutions around Jupiter’  They are circling Jupiter, similar to how the moon circles Earth, they had to be moons  SIMON MARIUS; German astronomer, was entranced by the spectacle, later to say he saw these worlds a few days before Galileo  Clearly Jupiter, had some power to move moons with it.  Rushed to print his findings, Sidereus
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